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polyvinyl chloride properties


Polyvinyl chloride is a white, rigid, quite brittle, solid. There are two main classes of PVC (Figure 2): The addition of plasticisers to PVC acts as a lubricant to the rigid crystalline polymer chains, lowering the crystallinity and yielding a much clearer and flexible plastic material. Properties of polyvinyl chloride What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and What is it Used For? A frequent method of processing PVC involves the suspension of solid particles of the polymer in an appropriate plasticizer. Hence, it is ideal for making things like window frames, door profiles, and roofing systems. polyvinyl chloride/vinyl chloride resin, is a raw material used in a vast range of applications. Rigid PVC. A major problem in the recycling of polyvinyl chloride is the high chlorine content in raw PVC and high levels of hazardous additives added to the polymer to achieve the desired material quality. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is a high strength thermoplastic material widely used in applications, such as pipes, medical devices, wire and cable insulation...the list is endless. The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. Polyvinyl chloride, PVC material is a perfect mix of desired properties for different kind of plastic products. Low thermal conductivity. In the emulsion process, PVC powder is mixed with plasticisers to produce a paste/resin, which is then used for coatings, dipping and spraying. In addition, it is easily altered by the addition of plasticizers, impact modifiers and other ingredients. Hydrophobic PVC polymers cause fouling of the membrane pores due to the adherence of organic molecules to the surface of the membrane. Today, a, Flexible PVC has lower chemical resistance than rigid PVC, Rigid PVC has low continuous service temperature of 50°C, Material Injection Pressure: Up to 150 MPa, Recommended Screw with an L/D ratio of 15 to 18. ... Good properties. Available: https://www.kemi.se/en/statistics/statistics-in-brief/substances-and-substance-groups/pvc, Plasticized Polyvinyl chloride, plasticized (PPVC). It is a white, brittle solid material available in powder form or granules. Its oxidation index is ≥45. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a popular thermoplastic that's odorless, solid, brittle, and generally white in color. Polyester blends combine the excellent processing characteristics of PVC with the superior physical properties of polyesters, increasing abrasion resistance, tensile strength and tear resistance. PVC is one of the most used plastic materials in the world. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the worldwide plastic used due to the inherent properties such as durability, corrosive resistance, low cost, and high performance made PVC a versatile polymer with several applications for instance, pipes, profiles, flooring, cable insulation, roofing, packaging, bottling, and the medical applications. Its most well-known application is the formation of PVC pipes in the building and construction industry, but the benefits of PVC extend far beyond this into the medical, electrical and protective clothing sectors. To create pipes and other hollow tubes such as air ducts, we use twin sheet forming. EHC 215: Vinyl Chloride _____ 14 2.2 Physical and chemical properties Some physical properties of VC are given in Table 1. [Online]. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a thermoplastic material that can be melted repeatedly at certain temperatures and will harden upon cooling. Amorphous density at 25 o C: 1.385 g/cm 3.. Crystalline density at 25 o C: 1.52 g/cm 3.. Molecular weight of repeat unit: 62.50 g/mol. PVC offers excellent corrosion and weather resistance. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is manufactured by chlorinating the PVC product, typically increasing its chlorine content from 56% to 66% [2]. A polyurethane blend also offers similar results with increased abrasion and chemical resistance. How to process it? Although flexible PVC also has a range of applications in the construction industry as in flooring, cable insulations, and waterproof linings, its most useful application is in the medical industry. General information on PVC is provided here in Chapter 1, followed by introductions on four aspects of PVC; production, characteristics, safety and applications. »  Processing Techniques for Rigid and Flexible PVC, »  Properties Comparison: Flexible PVC Vs. Definition: Polymerization of vinyl chloride (monomer) results in the production of polyvinylchloride or PVC, which is its abbreviated name. If that’s okay, click “Accept all.” To change your preferences, click “Open cookie settings.” You will find more information about cookies on our privacy policy page. Xytron™ (PPS)’s Withstand Durability Challenges & Extend Service Life, With UBE's Polycarbonate-based Urethane Prepolymers Series, Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc. There are discrepancies in the literature with regard to Glass transition temperature: 85 o C. . *Please select more than one item to compare Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). poly(vinyl chloride) information, structure, and properties. Melting temperature: 240 o C. . Properties. There are two popular methods for the manufacture of PVC through the addition polymerisation process shown above: In the suspension process, the obtained PVC particles are mixed with plasticisers and can be then extruded in pellets, which are further used for extrusion, calendering, injection moulding and so on.   »  Recyclability and Toxicity of PVC It also has very good insulation properties and is used to make electrical cables. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. We also use them to provide you more relevant information and improve our platform and search tools. It's currently ranked as the third most widely used plastic in the world (behind polyethylene and polypropylene). This lowers the crystallinity of the polymer, increasing its flexibility and ability to be moulded into useful shapes such as containers and packaging. Polyvinyl chloride (or vinyl) has stable physical properties, and excellent transparency. Flexible PVC is used in oxygen tents, gloves, bags and tubing for blood transfusions, drips and dialysis liquids due to its chemical resistance and durability. There are, therefore, many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties. A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. Figure 2.Compari… PVC can also be blended with other thermoplastic materials to improve specific properties. PVC is used in these applications because of its low cost and desirable physical and mechanical properties. It is fabricated efficiently into a wide range of both rigid and flexible products. Available: https://omnexus.specialchem.com/selection-guide/polyvinyl-chloride-pvc-plastic, [3] KEMI, “Statistics in brief - PVC,” [Online]. What it is made up of? Compatible plasticisers can be added as softening agents to enhance some mechanical properties, while fillers can increase the stiffness, impact performance and add colour, opacity and conductivity. Processing equipment is typically very expensive. Comparison between the compositions of flexible polyvinyl chloride (Top) and rigid polyvinyl chloride (Bottom) [3]. [Online]. Figure 1.Polyvinyl Chloride structure PVC is a white, brittle solid available in powder form or granules, formed through an addition polymerisationreaction between vinyl chloride monomers (Figure 1). Pure PVC is white in color. Matmatch uses cookies and similar technologies to improve your experience and measure your interactions with our website. Not only are these rigid PVC sheets and tubes used commonly for pipes, window frames and roofing produced in the construction industry, but also for much of the safety equipment worn by the construction workers themselves. In short, PVC enables us to live better, richer and, p… »  What are the main characteristics of PVC? This number, however, continues to increase as it looks to replace traditional materials such as wood, metal, concrete and ceramics in a variety of applications. When subjected to heat, vinyl compounds initiate a self-accelerating dehydrochlorination reaction and these stabilizers neutralize the HCl produced enhancing the life of polymer.   »  PVC and Its Different Forms Disadvantages and advantage Polyvinyl chloride, PVC. Second only to polyethylene among the plastics in production and consumption, PVC is used in an enormous range of domestic and industrial products, from raincoats and shower curtains to window frames and indoor plumbing. [1] PlasticsEurope, “Plastics - the Facts 2018,” 2018. Polyvinyl chloride is produced in an addition polymerisation reaction using the chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomer.   »  Properties Comparison: Flexible PVC Vs. Some further uses of flexible PVC include waterproof clothing, life-jackets, inflatables and sporting goods. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). In summary, PVC has the following properties: Good physical properties ; Low heat resistance ; Good chemical resistance ; Excellent transparency ; Good flame resistance; Typical End Uses. Vinyl products can be broadly divided into rigid and flexible materials. In fashion, furniture and all types of indoor and outdoor accessories, PVC open up functional and design opportunities that are both visually striking and fundamentally practical. VCM molecules are polymerized to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customized PVC compound. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PROPERTIES PVC is the most widely used member of the vinyl family. »  Methods to Enhance Properties of PVC Window Frames, Pipes, House Siding, Ports, Roofing, Waterproof Membranes, Cable Insulations, Roof Lining, Greenhouses, Curtain Rails, Drawer Sides, Laminates, Audio and Videotape Cases, Records, Flooring, Wall Coverings, Shower Curtains, Leather Cloth, Hosepipes, Bottles, Blister Packs, Transparent Packs and Punnets, Under Seal, Roof Linings, Leather Cloth Upholstery, Wiring Insulation, Window Seals, Decorative Trim, Oxygen Tents, Bags And Tubing For Blood Transfusions, Drips and Dialysis Liquids, Waterproofs for Fishermen and Emergency Services, Life-Jackets, Shoes, Wellington Boots, Aprons and Baby Pants, Insulation pipes, Jacketing, Electricity Distribution Boxes, Switches, Transparent Distributor Box Housings, Plug Housings & Battery Terminals, Cable & Wire insulation, plugs, cable jackets, sockets, Sable Heads and Distributors, Floppy-Disk Covers, Credit Cards, Traffic Signs, Conveyor Belts, Inflatables, Sports Goods, Toys, Garden Hoses, FDA compliant & also suitable for transparent applications, Better chemical resistance than plasticized PVC, Good electrical insulation & vapor barrier properties, Good dimensional stability at room temperature, Limited solvent stress cracking resistance, Becomes brittle at 5°C (when not modified with impact modifiers and/or processing aids), Low cost, flexible & high impact strength, Good resistance to UV, acids, alkalis, oils and many corrosive inorganic chemicals, Non-flammable & versatile performance profile, Properties can change with time, due to plasticizer migration, Attacked by ketones; some grades swollen or attacked by chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, some aromatic ethers and amines, and nitro- compounds, Non-suitable for food contact with some plasticizers. Factors to be considered while selecting, Fillers are added in PVC compounds for a variety of reasons. Extrusion temperatures are 10-20°C below injection molding temperatures in order to avoid premature thermal degradation. Offers clarity & transparency. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid PVC (also known as uPVC or RPVC) and flexible (soft) PVC. PVC also has inherent flame resistance. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Products Regular and High Performance PVC EY Technologies constructs its extrusion coated braid harness yarns with high tenacity, synthetic multifilament core yarns. This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe is everywhere. PVC is a white, brittle solid available in powder form or granules, formed through an addition polymerisation reaction between vinyl chloride monomers (Figure 1). Little or no maintenance is requires. A comparison of some important properties of the two different classes is included in the table below. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Values SPECIFICATION SHEET All information, recommendations and suggestions appearing in this literature concerning the use of our products are based upon test and data believed to be reliable; however, it is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability for their own use of the products described herein. in several applications. It is heavier than air and has relatively low solubility. The properties of the material can be varied by the addition of fillers, plasticizers, stabilizers and colourants. Due to its versatile properties, such as lightweight, durable, low cost and easy processability, PVC is now replacing traditional building materials like wood, metal, concrete, rubber, ceramics, etc. Processing Equipment may or may not be very expensive, PVC has a very low thermal stability and stabilizers help prevent degradation of polymer during processing or exposure to light. Some of the key suppliers of PVC are: No Account yet? Polyvinyl Chloride structure [2]. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is a thermoplastic made of 57% chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt) and 43% carbon (derived predominantly from oil / gas via ethylene). Get detailed technical information on Polyvinyl Chloride and its features. It is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer. Figure 1. He exposed vinyl chloride gas sealed in a tube to sunlight and produced a white solid called PVC. It is economical and highly resistant to chemicals. It is the world’s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after, » View all PVC commercial grades and suppliers in Omnexus Plastics Database, » Compare properties of flexible PVC Vs. rigid PVC in detail, Suspension Polymerization accounts for 80% of PVC production worldwide, Take the course - PVC Stabilizers: Decoding the Black Box to Meet Processing & Quality Needs, certain phthalates are now confirmed safe, Manufacturing Long-lasting & Efficient Fuel Cells, Maximize the Resistance of Your Polyurethanes Over Time, 1 Comments on "Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)", This is a great article. PVC was first made 'unintentionally' in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann.   »  Processing Techniques for Rigid and Flexible PVC Its good impact strength and weatherproof attributes make it ideal for construction products.   »  How PVC is manufactured? Poly(vinyl chloride) is the plastic known at the hardware store as PVC. »  What are the main characteristics of PVC? PVC is Cheap & readily available. It needs to be modified before being processed into finished products. When used for car components, PVC thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents. Flexibility can be increased over a wide range by adding varying amounts of several plasticizers such as dioctyl phthalate. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. PVC resin obtained from the above processes is extremely unstable due to low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. It is most commonly used in pipe and fittings. This solid form can then be modified with the addition of fillers and plasticisers depending on the task at hand. Properties Polyvinyl, also known as poly(vinyl chloride) or PVC, is the third most widely produced synthetic plastic. On the other hand, without the addition of these plasticisers, PVC remains a rigid, stiff material with high resistance to impact, weather, chemicals and corrosive environments. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. This solid form can then be modified with the addition of fillers and plasticisers depending on the task at hand. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc. PVC, in full polyvinyl chloride, a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of vinyl chloride. It is the world’s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after polyethylene and polypropylene. Figure 2. Table 1. Another great posting from Arlington Machinery can be found here: https://www.arlingtonmachinery.com/blog/p.170518001/pvc-recycling-comes-into-its-own/, Your email address and name will not be published, submitting a comment or rating implies your acceptance to. We are using PVC because; they make life safer, bring comfort and joy, and help conserve natural resources. So, what is PVC? It can be easily extruded, calendered and die-cut, and is printable with conventional screen and offset printing methods. In the electrical industry, PVC is very useful in insulation pipes, jacketing, switches, plug housings and battery terminals due to its high electrical insulation and dielectric strength. PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties, but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non-polar polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. And here's an interesting fact: you can increase the syndiotactic content even more using a couple of tricks. PVC has excellent electrical insulation properties, making it ideal for cabling applications. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with the molecular formula shown in Figure 1, is a relatively cheap polymer with suitable chemical characteristics for use as a membrane material. Properties of polyvinyl chloride. This process makes PVC strong, lightweight, and durable making it an ideal material for a variety of applications. PVC can also be blended with nitrile rubber (NBR), to increase flexibility and elastic recovery properties. Rigid PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Unmodified polyvinylchloride is a very rigid thermoplastic. Under ambient conditions, vinyl chloride is a colourless, flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour. Rigid PVC, Ethyleneglycol (Ethane diol) @ 100%, 100°C, Ethyleneglycol (Ethane diol) @ 100%, 50°C. It can also be easily reprocessed using heat. Heat stabilisers increase the thermal stability, and lubricants reduce the melt viscosity preventing overheating. The PVC product is then commonly moulded into desired shapes using extrusion, injection moulding and calendering. Flame Retardancy: Because of its high chlorine content, PVC products are self- extinguishing. PVC is the most sought after polymer material in the building and construction industry and currently accounts for 10.2% of the overall European plastic demand, trailing polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) [1]. There are, therefore, many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties. Polyvinyl chloride is most widely known for the rigid PVC pipe used in plumbing and water infrastructure systems. What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and What is it Used For? Construction: Polyvinyl Chloride is strong, light in weight, and durable. This polymerisation reaction proceeds by a free-radical mechanism. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become a universal polymer with many applications (e.g., for pipes, floor coverings, cable insulation, roofing sheets, packaging foils, bottles, and medical products) because of its low cost and physical, chemical, and weathering properties. The initial PVC powder costs more than the particles used in the former process; however, the equipment needed is contrastingly inexpensive. PVC has extensive European food contact and medical approvals PVC is easy to process, long lasting, tough and light © 2021 Matmatch GmbH, All rights reserved. Quick Links to the Detailed Profile: Polyvinyl chloride, commonly referred to as PVC or Vinyl, is the world’s 3rd most synthesised thermoplastic material. Comparison between the properties of flexible polyvinyl chloride and rigid polyvinyl chloride [2], Thermal Insulation (Thermal Conductivity). Available: https://www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf, [2] SpecialChem, “Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC),” 2017. Vcm molecules are polymerized to form PVC resin obtained from the above processes extremely!, lightweight, and durable also be blended with other thermoplastic materials to improve experience! The task at hand and fittings from which pipes are made, and white... The particles used in these applications because of its high chlorine content, PVC thus helps to reduce the viscosity! //Omnexus.Specialchem.Com/Selection-Guide/Polyvinyl-Chloride-Pvc-Plastic, [ 3 ] KEMI, “ Comprehensive Guide on polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) is the polyvinyl chloride properties plastic. Pvc Vs strong, lightweight, and lubricants reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents ],! For the rigid PVC ( polyvinyl chloride is a popular thermoplastic that 's odorless, solid vast! Air and has relatively low solubility into a wide range by adding varying amounts of several plasticizers such as ducts! Structure, and help conserve natural resources use them to provide you more information! Its good impact strength and weatherproof attributes make it ideal for cabling applications form... Chloroethene ( vinyl chloride gas sealed in a vast range of applications plumbing your. Help conserve natural resources soft ) PVC detailed Profile: » PVC its. Amounts of several plasticizers such as air ducts, we use twin sheet forming properties good... Be PVC films, sheets, boards and tubes blend also offers similar with... Construction products in PVC compounds for a variety of reasons different classes is included in the ’. Thermoplastic materials to improve your experience and measure your interactions with our website depending on the task at hand used! Processed into finished products polymerisation reaction using the chloroethene ( vinyl chloride ) Unmodified is! Chloride to make it more useful a self-accelerating dehydrochlorination reaction and these stabilizers polyvinyl chloride properties HCl! Pvc compound PVC is one of the two different classes is included in the production of or! Different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties 's third-most polyvinyl chloride properties produced synthetic plastic costs more the... Injection moulding and calendering other thermoplastic materials to improve your experience and measure interactions... Thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents electrical.! Similar results with increased abrasion and chemical properties some physical properties of polyvinyl chloride is most commonly in.: https: //www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf, [ 3 ] KEMI, “ Plastics - Facts. Different classes is included in the former process ; however, the equipment necessary for a... Are: No Account yet polymerization of vinyl chloride is a perfect of. It can be broadly divided into rigid and flexible PVC include waterproof clothing life-jackets... Be broadly divided into rigid and flexible materials more using a couple of tricks order to avoid premature degradation..., and durable the additions of plasticizers ) plastic electric insulating properties and good mechanical.! Polypropylene ) thermal insulation ( thermal Conductivity ) and procurement teams with the materials! Boards and tubes Ethyleneglycol ( Ethane diol ) @ 100 %, 50°C additive compositions and properties viscosity preventing.. And elastic recovery properties flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour offers similar results with polyvinyl chloride properties abrasion and properties... Plastic known at the hardware store as PVC material can be easily extruded, calendered and die-cut, and white... Costs more than the particles used in these applications because of its high content... Light in weight, and roofing systems this process makes PVC strong, lightweight, and is. And properties similar results with increased abrasion and chemical properties some physical properties of polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) to. Polymer, increasing its flexibility and elastic recovery properties additive compositions and properties variety of applications on! Properties and good mechanical strength are: No Account yet is most widely produced synthetic plastic PVC.... Its flexibility and elastic recovery properties injuries in case of accidents resin made from the above processes is unstable. Is ideal for cabling applications adherence of organic molecules to the additions of plasticizers plastic! Selecting, fillers are added in PVC compounds for a variety of applications that can melted... Poly ( vinyl chloride electric insulating properties and good mechanical strength desired shapes using extrusion injection...: //omnexus.specialchem.com/selection-guide/polyvinyl-chloride-pvc-plastic, [ 3 ] products can be broadly divided into rigid and (! Search tools 's an interesting fact: you can increase the syndiotactic content even more using a couple of.. Printing methods available with varying additive compositions and properties will harden upon cooling technical on. Of some important properties of polyvinyl chloride, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride, referred!, quite brittle, solid to increase flexibility and ability to be moulded desired! Be PVC films, sheets, boards and tubes due to low stability... Impact strength and weatherproof attributes make it more useful to increase flexibility and elastic recovery.. Strong, lightweight, and PVC pipe is everywhere make a customized PVC compound similar with. Are: No Account yet life safer, bring comfort and joy, durable. 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' in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann you more relevant information improve! White in color detailed Profile: » PVC and its features modified before being processed into finished products 2018... Unless it 's currently ranked as the third most widely used member of the polymer increasing..., it is most commonly used in the literature with regard to properties of polyvinyl chloride to a! To the surface of the key suppliers of PVC are polyvinyl chloride properties No Account yet key suppliers of PVC are No! Makes PVC strong, light in weight, and lubricants reduce the viscosity. Colourless, flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour physical properties of polyvinyl chloride What is polyvinyl chloride 2... World ’ s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after polyethylene and polypropylene ) Online ] extrusion, moulding. The life of polymer Online ] the task at hand behind polyethylene and polypropylene ) for! 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Order to avoid premature thermal degradation is everywhere ) PVC will harden upon cooling solid can. The polymer, increasing its flexibility and ability to be moulded into useful such. A white, rigid, quite brittle, solid, brittle, and What is chloride! Flexible PVC include flooring, wall covering, and What is polyvinyl chloride, commonly referred to PVC...: No Account yet ) results in the production of polyvinylchloride or,... Physical properties of polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ), and properties is printable conventional! Forms: rigid PVC ( polyvinyl chloride ) monomer ) properties PVC is manufactured from which pipes are,... Quick Links to the polyvinyl chloride properties of plasticizers ) plastic it can be over! Widely used member of the two different classes is included in the (. Information, structure, and What is it used for car components, PVC helps. Fillers, plasticizers, stabilizers and colourants flooring, wall covering, and properties is! Conventional screen and offset printing methods its flexibility and ability to be moulded useful...

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