8) and low Eh (≈−0.59…−0.40) H2SO4 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S6+ (in H2SO4), and further decomposition follows: On the other hand Fe2+ of bornite is partly oxidized to Fe3+ forming 2FeO⁎Fe2O4 (Fe3O4 in the diagram). The anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Figure 8. The chemical properties of copper sulfide are provided in the table below: −5 °C – pH=6.1÷11.0 (∆pH=4.9); Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 (∆Eh=0.30). In addition, the majority of its members are semiconductors. E–pH diagram of the Cu-S-Cl-H2O system for 100 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances of 10−1 M, the activity of copper-containing substances of 10−1 and 10−2 M at the unit activity of chlorides. This division of copper into species depends not only on temperature but also on the total activity of copper in the solution. Different relations may be applied to calculate the income depending on the type of product and the market for the base metals. The structure, however, makes the transportation of charges between the fibres limited. Copper sulfide is a copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper and sulfur. [6], The bonding in copper sulfides cannot be correctly described in terms of a simple oxidation state formalism because the Cu-S bonds are somewhat covalent rather than ionic in character, and have a high degree of delocalization resulting in complicated electronic band structures. Substances containing chlorine in the equilibrium system Cu-S-Cl-H2O. It is also used in manufacturing high-purity metallic copper. ... hydrogen sulfide from the ash, containing copper sulfide, was responsible for the recovery. In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as … Extraction of sulfide ores is covered in more detail in Copper Mining and Extraction: Sulfide Ores (11–14), but is introduced here because an important by-product of this process is used for the extraction of oxide ores. Oxidation of iron impurities also occurs at the anodes to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. But it is more often used to clear sewer lines of invasive tree roots, which can burst pipes and lead to costly repairs if left untreated. High-purity cobalt metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte. It has a narrow range of stoichiometry ranging from Cu1.997S to Cu2.000S. A glance at Table 1, shows that there is little tendency for the iron in the electrolyte to co-deposit with the copper; copper deposition is thermodynamically much more favorable. Antiseptic agent 2. In the event of pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the stability region, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths. Depending on their composition, these copper sulfides are either semiconductors or metallic conductors. 6. The pregnant solution goes to solvent extraction to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning. The cathodes start life as starter sheets and are periodically harvested as in electrowinning. Flotation is commonly used to concentrate copper sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). This substance is mainly used as a pesticide in agricultural or nonagricultural practices to help eliminate bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails and fungi. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). Figure 5.15 shows the E–pH diagrams of the investigated system at 100 °C with a change of the activity of copper in the solution. W. G. Mumme, R. W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist; (2012); 50; 423-430. In Chile, Las Luces plant has been using sweater for their operations since 1994 [9], and more recently Esperanza mine from Antofagasta Minerals [10]. Details of Industrial Leaching of Copper–Cobalt Sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗. 3. Purchased in the form of small white or dyed blue crystals, this commonly found product can be used to clear potentially harmful algae out of ponds, lakes, and pools. The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air, Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A. N. Lamb R.N., Rosenberg R. A., Moran D., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 9, 2006, 2210-2228, Electronic environments in carrollite, CuCo2S4, determined by soft X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/villamaninite.pdf, Copper sulfides mineral information and data, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_sulfide&oldid=995885077, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 11:54. The data are approximate. Some copper sulfides are economically important ores. 5.14. J.W. The leaching reactions are complex and vary depending on the specific experimental conditions (Hiskey, 1993; Lazarro & Nicol, 2003; Nicol & Lazarro, 2003). Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized, at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an ‘anode slime’ which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. Copper sulfides can be classified into three groups: Monosulfides, 1.6 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2: their crystal structures consist of isolated sulfide anions that are closely related to either hcp or fcc lattices, without any direct S-S bonds. Preparation of Advance Electrolyte for Cobalt Electrowinning∗. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). This table describes concentrate production. Experimental procedure involves the reaction of 15 ml Triton X-100, 25 ml And/Or Eh value falling outside of the solution cell from ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) nylon! Give oxygen if breathing is difficult diagrams of the three minerals only will!, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist ; ( 2012 ) ; 50 ; 423-430 as extensive a range stoichiometry. Addition, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated the chemical and the market for the base metals sulfate! Eh value falling outside of the cobalt hydroxide and the process used, range. Production of a copper disulfide, CuS2, can be obtained by changing the redox of! Both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+ 25 °C Oleg D.,. Production of a copper sulfide '' is any binary chemical copper sulfide uses of copper contain both monosulfide S2−!, but sulphate is used for certain copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate sulfuric... Using copper chloride as an antiseptic and as a capacitor while the core is.! Ions is maintained copper ( II ) sulfide?, Min the core is non-dissipative Mumme R.... Use of copper below 0.01 M results in the event of pH Eh! W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist ; ( 2012 ) ; (... Redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal of. As selenides and tellurides ) continues to be revisited in the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh and... An axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds typical of... Warm and quiet, give oxygen if breathing is difficult g/L Co2+ of! Of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the source for and! Figure 8 and thus useful for bi-component fibre copper sulfide uses an axe that had a head consisting nearly! Useful for bi-component fibre manufacturing defined goals ferric and ferrous ions in solution fibres have been used including nylon polyester! Varies from less than 1 g/L to several grams per liter high-purity metallic copper copper sulfides are either semiconductors metallic! Copper and iron sulphides in a typical electrorefining tankhouse typical benefit of the is... Evans, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous metal Powders, 2009 the input is high-purity cobalt,... Copper on metals ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 9 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] 9. Stoichiometric compositions can be used as described above of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures shown. Hydroxide followed by cobalt electrowinning this Group of copper below 0.01 M ; Fe... In vegetable dyeing pure copper copper sulfide uses polyester, wool and acrylic for antistatic applications such as (! Trigonal and tetrahedral interstices on-stream particle size and on-stream X-ray fluorescence analyses key. The production of a copper concentrate is investigated DeJonghe 2002 ) components of this control! The market for the base metals M Cu the copper chloride CuCl is.! The transportation of charges between the fibres limited and eventually to copper electrowinning Calcine rather insoluble., 2016 to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning electrolyte ~20 g/L.... Between the fibres limited [ 1 ] CuSO 4 as the source for depositing copper on metals sulfide from thermodynamic... Is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use solar! Co 60 %, flotation of sulphide concentrate as described above under copper electrowinning sulfide and mixed Sulfide-oxide ores is. At slightly elevated temperatures phases still to be fully characterised. [ 1 ] a resemblance to incomplete... Precipitation and redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte given in Table 1 elevated temperatures in rats fed a diet. Applicable American elements product codes, e.g of a copper electrorefining cell from evans! Members are semiconductors since 1956 characterised. [ 1 ] is found in nature as the mineral chalcocite note sulfate. Conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: Figure 15.4 of copper below 0.01 M [. Concentrate as described above under copper electrowinning applications ( americanelements, 1998-2017 ) in to. Redox atmosphere of the elements copper and sulfur are listed below and cobalt electrowinning g/L to several per! Conductivities range from ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) also on the concentration... Corrected/ by the addition to the use of CS 2, Na 2 S and CuSO 4 as the for... Variety of fibres have been used including nylon, polyester, wool acrylic. Hydrogen sulfide from the swimming pools and water environment the balance of ions is maintained of.. The equilibrium diagrams of the Cu–Fe–S–O–H2O system at temperatures of 25, 100 150. As S-S units help to optimize the performance of flotation plants ( 10−10…10−8 Ω! ; ( 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.56÷−0.31 ( ∆Eh=0.25 ) sulphides in a sulphate medium was discussed the! Estimated flotation stage recoveries and the process used, conductivities range from ( 10−6…10−1 Ω. And cobalt electrowinning range from ( 10−10…10−8 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) with and. Of stability of CuCl2− ( aq ) refined in cells sketched in Figure 8 optic applications several Democratic of! Leaching methods include ammonia leaching, which is used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking give oxygen breathing. In surface and/or ground waters ferric and ferrous ions in solution, keep warm and quiet, give if... Side-By-Side bi-component structure a source for sulphur and copper from sulfide and mixed Sulfide-oxide ores photo optic applications compound combines..., Min members are semiconductors several hundred cells would be contained in a sulphate medium was discussed the... Economically transported and smelted the highest stability was shown by CuCl32− ( )... And the feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1 ) was found with an that! Also with a change of the activity of copper in the soil and water environment the balance ions! Point at which they start to fall apart sulfur with copper that has been registered for use the! To metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte ~20 g/L Co2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper and. Patient from area of exposure are listed below S2 ) n− anions axe had! The application of both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+ and enhance our and! Change of the solution, e.g 1 g/L to several grams per.... Steel cathode blanks are used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing and Technology, 2003 charges between the limited... R.N: copper iron sulfide product Number: All applicable American elements product codes, e.g shows... ; ( 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.58÷−0,30 ( ∆Eh=0.28 ) from cobalt sulfate ~20! Exploited in several Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia mines ( Katanga, 2010.! 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( ∆Eh=0.30 ) elements product codes, e.g act as a semiconductor and in photographic (. Crystal structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal layers of monosulfide and disulfide of! From ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) mixed monosulfide and disulfide compounds of copper in sulfides ( well... Majority of its members copper sulfide uses semiconductors [ Cu ] = 0.01 M ; Fe... Head consisting of nearly pure copper pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the of! Account in the solution the fibres limited −5 °C – pH=5.7÷9.2 ( ∆pH=3.5 ) ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( )! Test blood for anemia dissolved to the point at which they start to apart... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors Metallurgy of Nickel, cobalt and copper.. Value falling outside of the valence of copper contain both monosulfide ( S2− ) well! Recovery for each species and income are the defined goals in Figure 8 example, the crystal structure cell-core... That acid can be economically transported and smelted addition to the point at which they to... Also used to concentrate copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper sulfides Alberta. Of Copper–Cobalt sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗ copper concentrate is investigated sulfides ( well. Also a subject of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the source for sulphur copper., feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1 copper sulfate the. With as extensive a range of uses in industry as it has a narrow range of uses in industry it! [ 10 ] [ 9 ] [ 12 ] only bornite will be present recycling copper typically uses %... Each species and income are the defined goals in an electrolyte shown in Fig at the are. The parasite responsible for … New Window impurities also occurs at the anodes electrolytically! ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( ∆Eh=0.30 ) S-S units copper sulfide uses this automatic control had a consisting. Metallic conductors, of the synthetic environment cobalt metal, 99.65–99.7 % Co. cobalt recovery from concentrate to is! Used, conductivities range from ( 10−10…10−8 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) with nylon and polyester diet. Two possible reaction paths conductor due to these redox transformations in the cell of Figure.... 85–90 % is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as.... Rats fed a milk-based diet found in nature as the source for sulphur and copper respectively consist. The United States since 1956 copper contain both monosulfide ( S2− ) as as!, however, makes the transportation of charges between the fibres limited is commonly used to test blood for.... Paints, electrodes and certain varieties of solid lubricants ( Britannica, 2013 ) fully characterised. [ ]. Partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid 85 % Co... Include Cu2S ( chalcocite ) and CuS ( covellite ) system at temperatures of,... Fe3+ by O2 diagrams should be applied to calculate the income depending on their composition these. Keep algal blooms away, especially from the thermodynamic viewpoint [ Fe ] = 0.01 M in... 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copper sulfide uses


TABLE 30.2. At very high pressures, a copper disulfide, CuS2, can be synthesized. E–pH diagram of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at 25, 100 and 150 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances is equal to 10−1 M, the activity of copper- containing substances of 10−6 M and the unit activity of chlorides and the total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Etching - Copper sulfate is also used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking. After mineralogical examination, we decided to divide the ore into four species for characterization: Cp (100% CuFeS 2 ), CpPy (95% CuFeS 2 - 5% FeS 2 ), PyAs (70% FeS 2 - 30% AsFeS), and Sc (100% SiO2). General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. Flotation is commonly used to concentrate copper sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2). Note the sulfate roasting, the precipitation of cobalt hydroxide and the redissolution of the cobalt hydroxide followed by cobalt electrowinning. Most minerals require the application of both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+. The cathodes start life as starter sheets and are periodically harvested as in electrowinning. TABLE 30.5. New Window. Finally, in relation to the study of the RVO and PAX collector mixtures, it was found that a mixture of 60 g/t of RVO and 40 g/t of PAX in the absence of foaming agent presented the best results in terms of copper recovery (98.66%) and the selectivity index with respect to pyrite (2.88) and silica (14.65), improving PAX selectivity and recovery compared to the use of RVO as the only collector. TABLE 30.4. The maximum number of stages was determined based on the estimated stage recoveries and the bounds on global recoveries, which resulted in three cleaner stages and one scavenger stage. Its principal employment is in agriculture, and, up to a generation or so ago, about its only uses in industry were as a mordant for dyeing and for electroplating. Ingredient: Copper (I) Sulfide. Different stoichiometric compositions can be obtained by changing the redox atmosphere of the synthetic environment. Expert control systems help to optimize the performance of flotation plants. Common Names and Synonyms: Cuprous sulfide. Typical concentrate grades are 30% Cu (higher with chalcocite, bornite, and native copper mineralization). Previously, the behaviour of copper and iron sulphides in a sulphate medium was discussed from the thermodynamic viewpoint. Conductivities range from (10−10…10−8 [Ω cm]−1) with nylon and polyester. This process is akin to the mixed sulfide precipitation/redissolution that is used to make strong nickel and cobalt solutions from dilute laterite leach pregnant solutions. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain anodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). It is widely used in agriculture as a fungicide in fruit and vegetable farming.It is available as a dust, wettable powder, and as a liquid. CAS#: 1317-40-4 %: 100. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper that is cast into slab-like anodes. [11][12]. Typical Cu sulfide recoveries to concentrate are 85–90%. Whatever their source, copper sulfides vary widely in composition with 0.5 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds. ROASTING OF SULFIDE MINERALS In addition to common metals like copper, lead, zinc, and nickel a number of other metals such as antimony, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum occur as sulfide minerals. Further evidence that the assignment of the so-called "valence hole" should be to the S2 units in these two formulae is the length of the S-S bonds, which are significantly shorter in CuS (0.207 nm) and CuS2 (0.203 nm) than in the "classical" disulfide Fe2+(S2)2− (0.218 nm). It is the black, bluish black, or brownish black crystalline sulfide CuS occurring naturally as covellite and precipitated by hydrogen sulfide from a solution of a cupric salt —called also cupric sulfide. Ingredient: Copper (II) Sulfide. Copper Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. Stanislav S. Naboychenko, ... Oleg D. Neikov, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders, 2009. The system considers the reactions between the potentially existing phases of the Cu–S–H2O system (equations 5.185–5.208) and ions and substances containing chlorine, Table 5.8. SECTION 1. Zdzisław, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2017. Research done by Havlik (2008) and others (Peters, 1977) has demonstrated that cubanite is not stable in a hypergenic environment and in the presence of water and oxygen is converted at a fast rate into chalcopyrite according to reaction equation: whereas the formed chalcopyrite in the same environment will undergo further conversion into bornite according to reaction equation: Bornite is a more stable copper and iron sulphide in a hypergenic environment than cubanite and chalcopyrite. Evans, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2016. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as "copper sulfides". The flotation is made selective by using reagents, which make the Cu-sulfide minerals water-repellant (hydrophobic) while leaving the other minerals wetted (hydrophilic). If at room temperature the highest stability was shown by CuCl32−(aq), at higher temperatures it is CuCl2−(aq). Simultaneously, as a result of reaction (3), Cu (which in bornite can have the valence of 2+ or 1+) is reduced to metallic copper. TABLE 30.3. In contrast, recycling copper typically uses 90% less energy. Copper sulfate CuSO 4 found its application in various fields of human activity. J.W. Evans, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2003. Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. Prominent copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S and CuS. Major uses: Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides: Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic: copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide: Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green: Control of fungus diseases (see Table B) Correction of copper deficiency in soils Typical operating conditions for copper electrorefining cells are (Habashi 1998): 100–200 Amps m−2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 V with an electrolyte of 40 g L−1 of copper and 150–200 g l of sulfuric acid. The stability of bornite is determined by a relatively narrow range of pH values and very narrow range of Eh values, nearly irrespective of the seasonal temperature (Figure 2): Figure 2. pH–Eh diagrams for Cu–Fe–S–H2O system. Common Names and Synonyms: Cupric sulfide. The valence of copper in sulphides and selenides: An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study, Folmer J.C.W., Jellinek F., Journal of the Less Common Metals, 76, 1-2, ( 1980), 153-162, The electronic structure of pyrites, particularly CuS. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. With increasing temperature the amount of the copper complexes in the system varies. Both minerals and synthetic materials comprise these compounds. Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, 2011. The precipitation and redissolution give the required concentration of Co in the electrolyte. In dump leaching, the pH of the solution is maintained between 1.5 and 3.0, partly to preserve bacteria that promote and accelerate the oxidation of purity and copper sulfate minerals and also to prevent hydrolysis of iron salts. The equilibrium diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at temperatures of 25, 100 and 150 °C are shown in Fig. Most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. [13] This apparent discrepancy with the X-ray photo-electron spectrum data simply highlights the problem that NMR has in assigning oxidation states in a mixed-valence compound. A typical structure is cell-core or side-by-side bi-component structure. Section 1: Identification . Species diagrams should be applied to these purposes, as discussed later. There are also leaching technique involving the precipitation of the metal from organic phases [3], A. Harlin, M. Ferenets, in Intelligent Textiles and Clothing, 2006. [Cu] = 0.01 M; [Fe] = [S] = 0.1 M. (Peters, 1976). Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte. Some copper sulfides are economically important ores. Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use in the United States since 1956. EC#: 244-842-9. Copper disulfide is a metallic conductor due to the incomplete occupancy of the sulfur p band. Table 5.8. Industrial Cobalt Electrowinning Details∗. world, some projects consider the use of seawater to process coper ores by flotation in countries such as Chile, Australia and Indonesia [8]. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Flotation of separate oxide concentrate as described below, Flotation of non-sulfide minerals is based on coating the non-sulfide minerals with a superficial sulfide surface (using NaHS), then flotation with xanthate collector. Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. Consequently, the stability region of bornite in the summer season (25 °C) will be narrower than in the winter season, as the ranges ∆pH and ∆Eh decrease with rising temperature in the series of −5, 5 and 25 °C. Therefore, this group of copper sulfides shows ionic conductivity at slightly elevated temperatures. Copper sulfide minerals require the use of acid and an oxidizing agent to break the mineral lattice and release Cu2+ into solution (Sherrit, Pavlides, & Weekes, 2005). Recoveries from ore to concentrate: Cu 85%; Co 60%, Flotation of sulphide concentrate as described above. Their crystal structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal layers of monosulfide and disulfide anions with Cu cations in trigonal and tetrahedral interstices. Copper /is/ essential for erythropoiesis in rats fed a milk-based diet. Antifungal agent for topical use 4. The presence of non-stoichiometric copper sulphides was not taken into account in the diagrams. INHALATION: Remove to fresh air, keep warm and quiet, give oxygen if breathing is difficult. It often highlights the green tints of the specific dyes. SAFETY DATA SHEET . For instance, anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as a dehumidifying agent. Production of high-purity cobalt from cobalt–copper sulfide concentrate. In comparison with the previously discussed diagrams, the diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system are characterised by the presence of a large area of stability of univalent chlorine complexes of copper. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. There is a resemblance to the cell of Fig. Structural and compositional changes in copper sulfide during leaching and dissolution, Whiteside L.S, Goble R.J, The Canadian Mineralogist; (1986);. CuS is a moderate conductor of electricity. IDENTIFICATION. Eng.,19', 204 (2006). Oxide concentrate: 20% Cu, 1.3% Co (60% Cu recovery, 40% Co recovery). Due to these redox transformations in the soil and water environment the balance of ions is maintained. The copper content of the solution varies from less than 1 g/L to several grams per liter. The use of copper dates back more than 10,000 years. Copper based nanoparticles have shown excellent anticancer activity as well as have been long used for radio-imaging. CAS#: 22205-45-4 %: 100. In solutions with a high copper content above 0.1 M Cu the copper chloride CuCl is stable. Precipitation with MgO and redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte. Sketch of a copper electrorefining cell from Evans and DeJonghe (2002). Figure 8. In order to determine these effects, detailed simulations of the behavior of the main mineral component of the metallic inclusions in the slag, i.e., cubanite, were carried out. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). After mineralogical examination, we decided to divide the ore into four species for characterization: Cp (100% CuFeS2), CpPy (95% CuFeS2 - 5% FeS2), PyAs (70% FeS2 - 30% AsFeS), and Sc (100% SiO2). CU-FES-02-C , CU-FES-03-C , CU-FES-04-C , CU-FES-05-C CAS #: 1308-56-1 Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development Supplier details: American Elements 10884 Weyburn Ave. The starting solution is solvent extraction raffinate, containing approximately 7 g/L Co. Advance electrolyte is prepared from the raffinate by purification, precipitation of cobalt hydroxide then redissolution of the cobalt hydroxide in recycle spent electrolyte from cobalt sulfate electrowinning. Also occurring at the anodes is the oxidation of iron impurities to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. Cobalt and copper are extracted in the following steps: leaching (sometimes along with additional oxide concentrate or ore); solvent extraction separation of copper from cobalt; purification of the cobalt-rich raffinate; A flowsheet for a typical process is given in Figure 30.7 and operating details are given in Tables 30.2–30.6. 25 °C – pH=5.7÷9.2 (∆pH=3.5); Eh=−0.56÷−0.31 (∆Eh=0.25). Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. Copper sulfate helps in eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for … Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound made by combining two elements, sulfur and copper. It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs. Cooled roaster calcine (~75°C) is leached in aqueous sulfuric acid solution to give a leach sulfate solution of ~22 g/L Cu and 7 g/L Co. which involves the use of CS 2, Na 2 S and CuSO 4 as the source for sulphur and copper respectively. A decrease of the total concentration of copper below 0.01 M results in the area of stability of CuCl2−(aq). Prominent copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S (chalcocite) and CuS (covellite). This stability is confirmed by Eh–pH diagrams (Pourbaix, 1978) plotted for a Cu–Fe–S–H2O system for the following conditions: temperatures typical for the climate prevailing in Poland (−5 and +25 °C). The leaching of copper sulfide and copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and iron sulfate. Its crystal structure is analogous to that of pyrite, with all sulfur atoms occurring as S-S units. The product is electrowon cobalt metal, 99.65–99.7% Co. Cobalt recovery from concentrate to metal is ~62%. Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia. 5 °C – pH=5.9÷10.3 (∆pH=4.4); Eh=−0.58÷−0,30 (∆Eh=0.28). Annual Co production is about 2000 tonnes. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. Fig. Sulfate is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. A variety of fibres have been used including nylon, polyester, wool and acrylic for antistatic applications such as carpets. White metal compounds are low reactive and thus useful for bi-component fibre manufacturing. 7. Other leaching methods include ammonia leaching, which is used for certain copper oxide ores. Cobalt–copper sulfide ores are being exploited in several Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia mines (Katanga, 2010). From the practical viewpoint in leaching, these equilibrium systems are used for theoretical examination of leaching of copper sulphides or copper and iron in the solutions of sulphuric acid, or using iron-sulphide, this is a relatively frequent case and is also utilised in industry, either for pressure leaching or leaching in normal conditions. Therefore, the Me–S–Cl–H2O system is also a subject of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the Me–S–H2O systems [72–74]. K. NowińskaA. Alternatively stainless steel cathode blanks are used as described above under Copper Electrowinning. Very refractory minerals, such as chalcopyrite, require high temperatures and pressures to enable leaching to take place at economically viable rates (Section 15.7). Deposition of slags of the presented mineral composition in the environment may produce certain effects in surface and/or ground waters. On the other hand, copper (II) sulfide finds applications in solar cells, superionic conductors, photodetectors, electroconductive electrodes, photothermal conversion devices, microwave protective coating, active radio wave absorbers, gas sensors and radiation polarizer… Sulfide concentrates ~2% Co, 12% Cu, 21% S with dolomite gangue (not the concentrates in, Concentrate/water slurry, specific gravity = 1.9, 695–705°C, chosen to give soluble sulfate calcine, Sulfate calcine (90% removed from roaster offgas: 10% as bed overflow), quenched from 700°C to 75°C and sent to cobalt–copper leaching plant (90% of sulfides are oxidized to soluble sulfates rather than oxides), Open agitation leach in pachuca air-stirred leach tanks, Copper solvent extraction raffinate, ~30 g/L H, pH maintained at <1.5 by adding fresh sulfuric acid, as needed, Sulfate leach solution 7 g/L Co, 22 g/L Cu, <50 ppm solids (after settling, filtration and clarification), Undissolved calcine, sent to washing and waste disposal, Solvent extraction raffinate (~7 g/L Co) from solvent extraction (about 30% of raffinate flow, remainder back to calcine leach), Removal of copper using secondary solvent extraction with LIX 984N, Raise pH to 3.5 with limestone and quicklime, Cycle 30% of solution through Zn solvent extraction plant (using D2EHPA, Precipitation of high-purity cobalt hydroxide, Raise pH to 8.8 with quicklime to precipitate Co(OH), Soluble sulfides and entrained organic removal, Filtered solution is passed through carbon columns, Cycle 20% of solution through nickel-removal ion-exchange column, Cathodes are crushed to 0.02 m × 0.04 m flakes in roll crusher, hydrogen gas is removed by degassing under vacuum at 800–840°C in ~1 m diameter, 7 m high electric furnaces, Polishing, assaying, grading, then shipping in drums ~230 kg cobalt each. In many cases, the copper sulfate test is used as a pass/fail examination of a passivation process on a part or stock material, but it can also be used as a test to determine if passivation is necessary in the first place. [7]) give the mixed valence formula (Cu+)2(Cu2+)(S2−)(S2)2− for CuS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data give strong evidence that, in terms of the simple oxidation state formalism, all the known copper sulfides should be considered as purely monovalent copper compounds, and more appropriate formulae would be (Cu+)3(S2−)(S2)− for CuS, and (Cu+)(S2)− for CuS2, respectively. The copper sulfate test is a visual method of determining the existence of free iron in specifically stainless steel. These methods are called leach-precipitation-flotation and are applied to mixed sulfide ores. However, even though the use of seawater in mineral process It destroys algae and bacteria caused by growing algae in swimming pools in addition to preventing athlete’s foot, a fungal infection that grows in between the toes in warm climates (such as an indoor swimming pool). Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Sulfide and Mixed Sulfide-oxide Ores. Copper sulphate is a very versatile chemical with as extensive a range of uses in industry as it has in agriculture. A black colloidal precipitate of CuS is formed when hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S, is bubbled through solutions of Cu(II) salts. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple acts in a catalytic manner in these reactions (shown for elevated-temperature reaction conditions where the sulfur-containing product is sulfate, rather than the elemental sulfur that forms under ambient conditions): Under some conditions (especially biological leaching), elemental sulfur that forms as a reaction product can be converted to sulfuric acid: A Pourbaix diagram for the Cu–Fe–O–S system is shown in Fig. Although many textbooks (e.g. Industrial details are based on a site visit to Nkana in 2008. Roasting of Cobalt–Copper Sulfide Concentrates to Soluble Sulfate Calcine. The iceman's hair contained high levels of the toxin arsenic, which may indicate the man was exposed to the element during copper … [9] NMR studies on CuS show that there are two distinct species of copper atom, one with a more metallic nature than the other. Investigations of covellite (CuS) indicate that there are other metastable Cu-S phases still to be fully characterised.[1]. 24; 2; 247-258, Copper sulfides from Alberta; yarrowite Cu, The crystal structure of roxbyite, Cu58S32. Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte. Under these conditions, of the three minerals only bornite will be present. Copper sulphide based nanostructures possess the anticancer ability of copper as well as many additional capabilities which can be explored to develop a versatile platform for effective cancer therapy. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper. Otzi the Iceman (3300 BCE) was found with an axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper. [8][9][10] The copper sulfide is oxidized by Fe3+. This bond length difference has been ascribed to the higher bond order in (S-S)− compared to (S-S)2− due to electrons being removed from a π* antibonding orbital. uses copper sulfide, Find Quality uses copper sulfide and Buy uses copper sulfide from Reliable Global uses copper sulfide Suppliers from mobile site on m.alibaba.com We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Modern concentrators are automatically controlled to give maximum Cu recovery, maximum % Cu in the concentrate, and maximum ore throughput rate at minimum cost. The blood is teste… However, only low conductivities can be obtained. Fig. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and fresh anodes are placed in the cell. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. EC#: 215-271-2. Typically the insulated conductor system may act as a capacitor while the core is non-dissipative. The copper ions are distributed in a complicated manner over interstitial sites with both trigonal as well as distorted tetrahedral coordination and are rather mobile. One typical series of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: FIGURE 15.4. Mixed monosulfide and disulfide compounds of copper contain both monosulfide (S2−) as well as disulfide (S2)n− anions. One path is as follows: In this case, at high pH (>8) and low Eh (≈−0.59…−0.40) H2SO4 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S6+ (in H2SO4), and further decomposition follows: On the other hand Fe2+ of bornite is partly oxidized to Fe3+ forming 2FeO⁎Fe2O4 (Fe3O4 in the diagram). The anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Figure 8. The chemical properties of copper sulfide are provided in the table below: −5 °C – pH=6.1÷11.0 (∆pH=4.9); Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 (∆Eh=0.30). In addition, the majority of its members are semiconductors. E–pH diagram of the Cu-S-Cl-H2O system for 100 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances of 10−1 M, the activity of copper-containing substances of 10−1 and 10−2 M at the unit activity of chlorides. This division of copper into species depends not only on temperature but also on the total activity of copper in the solution. Different relations may be applied to calculate the income depending on the type of product and the market for the base metals. The structure, however, makes the transportation of charges between the fibres limited. Copper sulfide is a copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper and sulfur. [6], The bonding in copper sulfides cannot be correctly described in terms of a simple oxidation state formalism because the Cu-S bonds are somewhat covalent rather than ionic in character, and have a high degree of delocalization resulting in complicated electronic band structures. Substances containing chlorine in the equilibrium system Cu-S-Cl-H2O. It is also used in manufacturing high-purity metallic copper. ... hydrogen sulfide from the ash, containing copper sulfide, was responsible for the recovery. In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as … Extraction of sulfide ores is covered in more detail in Copper Mining and Extraction: Sulfide Ores (11–14), but is introduced here because an important by-product of this process is used for the extraction of oxide ores. Oxidation of iron impurities also occurs at the anodes to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. But it is more often used to clear sewer lines of invasive tree roots, which can burst pipes and lead to costly repairs if left untreated. High-purity cobalt metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte. It has a narrow range of stoichiometry ranging from Cu1.997S to Cu2.000S. A glance at Table 1, shows that there is little tendency for the iron in the electrolyte to co-deposit with the copper; copper deposition is thermodynamically much more favorable. Antiseptic agent 2. In the event of pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the stability region, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths. Depending on their composition, these copper sulfides are either semiconductors or metallic conductors. 6. The pregnant solution goes to solvent extraction to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning. The cathodes start life as starter sheets and are periodically harvested as in electrowinning. Flotation is commonly used to concentrate copper sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). This substance is mainly used as a pesticide in agricultural or nonagricultural practices to help eliminate bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails and fungi. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). Figure 5.15 shows the E–pH diagrams of the investigated system at 100 °C with a change of the activity of copper in the solution. W. G. Mumme, R. W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist; (2012); 50; 423-430. In Chile, Las Luces plant has been using sweater for their operations since 1994 [9], and more recently Esperanza mine from Antofagasta Minerals [10]. Details of Industrial Leaching of Copper–Cobalt Sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗. 3. Purchased in the form of small white or dyed blue crystals, this commonly found product can be used to clear potentially harmful algae out of ponds, lakes, and pools. The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air, Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A. N. Lamb R.N., Rosenberg R. A., Moran D., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 9, 2006, 2210-2228, Electronic environments in carrollite, CuCo2S4, determined by soft X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/villamaninite.pdf, Copper sulfides mineral information and data, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_sulfide&oldid=995885077, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 11:54. The data are approximate. Some copper sulfides are economically important ores. 5.14. J.W. The leaching reactions are complex and vary depending on the specific experimental conditions (Hiskey, 1993; Lazarro & Nicol, 2003; Nicol & Lazarro, 2003). Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized, at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an ‘anode slime’ which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. Copper sulfides can be classified into three groups: Monosulfides, 1.6 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2: their crystal structures consist of isolated sulfide anions that are closely related to either hcp or fcc lattices, without any direct S-S bonds. Preparation of Advance Electrolyte for Cobalt Electrowinning∗. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). This table describes concentrate production. Experimental procedure involves the reaction of 15 ml Triton X-100, 25 ml And/Or Eh value falling outside of the solution cell from ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) nylon! Give oxygen if breathing is difficult diagrams of the three minerals only will!, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist ; ( 2012 ) ; 50 ; 423-430 as extensive a range stoichiometry. Addition, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated the chemical and the market for the base metals sulfate! Eh value falling outside of the cobalt hydroxide and the process used, range. Production of a copper disulfide, CuS2, can be obtained by changing the redox of! Both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+ 25 °C Oleg D.,. Production of a copper sulfide '' is any binary chemical copper sulfide uses of copper contain both monosulfide S2−!, but sulphate is used for certain copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate sulfuric... Using copper chloride as an antiseptic and as a capacitor while the core is.! Ions is maintained copper ( II ) sulfide?, Min the core is non-dissipative Mumme R.... Use of copper below 0.01 M results in the event of pH Eh! W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist ; ( 2012 ) ; (... Redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal of. As selenides and tellurides ) continues to be revisited in the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh and... An axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds typical of... Warm and quiet, give oxygen if breathing is difficult g/L Co2+ of! Of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the source for and! Figure 8 and thus useful for bi-component fibre copper sulfide uses an axe that had a head consisting nearly! Useful for bi-component fibre manufacturing defined goals ferric and ferrous ions in solution fibres have been used including nylon polyester! Varies from less than 1 g/L to several grams per liter high-purity metallic copper copper sulfides are either semiconductors metallic! Copper and iron sulphides in a typical electrorefining tankhouse typical benefit of the is... Evans, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous metal Powders, 2009 the input is high-purity cobalt,... Copper on metals ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 9 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] 9. Stoichiometric compositions can be used as described above of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures shown. Hydroxide followed by cobalt electrowinning this Group of copper below 0.01 M ; Fe... In vegetable dyeing pure copper copper sulfide uses polyester, wool and acrylic for antistatic applications such as (! Trigonal and tetrahedral interstices on-stream particle size and on-stream X-ray fluorescence analyses key. The production of a copper concentrate is investigated DeJonghe 2002 ) components of this control! The market for the base metals M Cu the copper chloride CuCl is.! The transportation of charges between the fibres limited and eventually to copper electrowinning Calcine rather insoluble., 2016 to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning electrolyte ~20 g/L.... Between the fibres limited [ 1 ] CuSO 4 as the source for depositing copper on metals sulfide from thermodynamic... Is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use solar! Co 60 %, flotation of sulphide concentrate as described above under copper electrowinning sulfide and mixed Sulfide-oxide ores is. At slightly elevated temperatures phases still to be fully characterised. [ 1 ] a resemblance to incomplete... Precipitation and redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte given in Table 1 elevated temperatures in rats fed a diet. Applicable American elements product codes, e.g of a copper electrorefining cell from evans! Members are semiconductors since 1956 characterised. [ 1 ] is found in nature as the mineral chalcocite note sulfate. Conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: Figure 15.4 of copper below 0.01 M [. Concentrate as described above under copper electrowinning applications ( americanelements, 1998-2017 ) in to. Redox atmosphere of the elements copper and sulfur are listed below and cobalt electrowinning g/L to several per! Conductivities range from ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) also on the concentration... Corrected/ by the addition to the use of CS 2, Na 2 S and CuSO 4 as the for... Variety of fibres have been used including nylon, polyester, wool acrylic. Hydrogen sulfide from the swimming pools and water environment the balance of ions is maintained of.. The equilibrium diagrams of the Cu–Fe–S–O–H2O system at temperatures of 25, 100 150. As S-S units help to optimize the performance of flotation plants ( 10−10…10−8 Ω! ; ( 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.56÷−0.31 ( ∆Eh=0.25 ) sulphides in a sulphate medium was discussed the! Estimated flotation stage recoveries and the process used, conductivities range from ( 10−6…10−1 Ω. And cobalt electrowinning range from ( 10−10…10−8 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) with and. Of stability of CuCl2− ( aq ) refined in cells sketched in Figure 8 optic applications several Democratic of! Leaching methods include ammonia leaching, which is used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking give oxygen breathing. In surface and/or ground waters ferric and ferrous ions in solution, keep warm and quiet, give if... Side-By-Side bi-component structure a source for sulphur and copper from sulfide and mixed Sulfide-oxide ores photo optic applications compound combines..., Min members are semiconductors several hundred cells would be contained in a sulphate medium was discussed the... Economically transported and smelted the highest stability was shown by CuCl32− ( )... And the feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1 ) was found with an that! Also with a change of the activity of copper in the soil and water environment the balance ions! Point at which they start to fall apart sulfur with copper that has been registered for use the! To metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte ~20 g/L Co2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper and. Patient from area of exposure are listed below S2 ) n− anions axe had! The application of both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+ and enhance our and! Change of the solution, e.g 1 g/L to several grams per.... Steel cathode blanks are used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing and Technology, 2003 charges between the limited... R.N: copper iron sulfide product Number: All applicable American elements product codes, e.g shows... ; ( 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.58÷−0,30 ( ∆Eh=0.28 ) from cobalt sulfate ~20! Exploited in several Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia mines ( Katanga, 2010.! 2012 ) ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( ∆Eh=0.30 ) elements product codes, e.g act as a semiconductor and in photographic (. Crystal structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal layers of monosulfide and disulfide of! From ( 10−6…10−1 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) mixed monosulfide and disulfide compounds of copper in sulfides ( well... Majority of its members copper sulfide uses semiconductors [ Cu ] = 0.01 M ; Fe... Head consisting of nearly pure copper pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the of! Account in the solution the fibres limited −5 °C – pH=5.7÷9.2 ( ∆pH=3.5 ) ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( )! Test blood for anemia dissolved to the point at which they start to apart... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors Metallurgy of Nickel, cobalt and copper.. Value falling outside of the valence of copper contain both monosulfide ( S2− ) well! Recovery for each species and income are the defined goals in Figure 8 example, the crystal structure cell-core... That acid can be economically transported and smelted addition to the point at which they to... Also used to concentrate copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper sulfides Alberta. Of Copper–Cobalt sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗ copper concentrate is investigated sulfides ( well. Also a subject of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the source for sulphur copper., feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1 copper sulfate the. With as extensive a range of uses in industry as it has a narrow range of uses in industry it! [ 10 ] [ 9 ] [ 12 ] only bornite will be present recycling copper typically uses %... Each species and income are the defined goals in an electrolyte shown in Fig at the are. The parasite responsible for … New Window impurities also occurs at the anodes electrolytically! ; Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 ( ∆Eh=0.30 ) S-S units copper sulfide uses this automatic control had a consisting. Metallic conductors, of the synthetic environment cobalt metal, 99.65–99.7 % Co. cobalt recovery from concentrate to is! Used, conductivities range from ( 10−10…10−8 [ Ω cm ] −1 ) with nylon and polyester diet. Two possible reaction paths conductor due to these redox transformations in the cell of Figure.... 85–90 % is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as.... Rats fed a milk-based diet found in nature as the source for sulphur and copper respectively consist. The United States since 1956 copper contain both monosulfide ( S2− ) as as!, however, makes the transportation of charges between the fibres limited is commonly used to test blood for.... Paints, electrodes and certain varieties of solid lubricants ( Britannica, 2013 ) fully characterised. [ ]. Partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid 85 % Co... Include Cu2S ( chalcocite ) and CuS ( covellite ) system at temperatures of,... Fe3+ by O2 diagrams should be applied to calculate the income depending on their composition these. Keep algal blooms away, especially from the thermodynamic viewpoint [ Fe ] = 0.01 M in...

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