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athenian military tactics


With time the Ancient Greece Military forces in Ancient Greece became much more structured. [11], The ram on the trireme was the Greek navy's most successful weapon. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Conversely, the Spartans repeatedly invaded Attica, but only for a few weeks at a time; they remained wedded to the idea of hoplite-as-citizen. The early encounters, at Nemea and Coronea were typical engagements of hoplite phalanxes, resulting in Spartan victories. The abreast formation was used in almost all of the naval battles, except during the Battle of Naupactus. They were known for their courage and strength. ), Warfare in the Ancient World, pp. The rise of Macedon and her successors thus sounded the death knell for the distinctive way of war found in Ancient Greece; and instead contributed to the 'superpower' warfare which would dominate the ancient world between 350 and 150 BC. The two phalanxes would smash into each other in hopes of quickly breaking the enemy force's line. Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year; Dec. 15, 2020. Athens had little choice but to surrender; and was stripped of her city walls, overseas possessions and navy. From the very beginning, the Athenians were compelled to fight for their new democracy. After his assassination, this war was prosecuted by his son Alexander the Great, and resulted in the takeover of the whole Achaemenid Empire by the Macedonians. The Athenian dominated Delian League of cities and islands extirpated Persian garrisons from Macedon and Thrace, before eventually freeing the Ionian cities from Persian rule. Like the navy, a single line was used to establish a walking order to battle. Following this victory, the Thebans first secured their power-base in Boeotia, before marching on Sparta. Undoubtedly part of the reason for the weakness of the hegemony was a decline in the Spartan population. Many of these would have been mercenary troops, hired from outlying regions of Greece. Shearing occurred when the oars of one ship collided with any part of the opposing ship. Anderson, J. K., Military Theory and Practice in the Age of Xenophon, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1970. Best, Jan G. P., Thracian Peltasts and their Influence on the Greek Warfare, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1969. [3] After the galley successfully crossed the opponent's line, the Greek ships would turn around and attack the susceptible side of the opponent's vessel.[5]. Parke, Herbert W., Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Hanson, Victor D., "Hoplite Battle as Ancient Greek Warfare: When, Where, and Why?" Anderson, J. K., Ancient Greek Horsemanship, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961. Whitehead, Ian (1987-10-01). The Spartans fought in the hoplite style which was the hallmark of ancient Greek warfare. [4] This battle formation was also so successful for the Greek navy that their opponents began to utilize it as well. This opportunity occurs while the attacked vessel stops rowing to evaluate the strength of each side of oarsman, leaving it in a standstill. From antiquity to the present, the Spartans have had far greater martial repute. Certainly, by approximately 650 BC, as dated by the 'Chigi vase', the 'hoplite revolution' was complete. Assemblies or groups of elite citizens sanctioned war, and generals (strategoi) came to be accountable for their actions and were often elected for fixed ter… Thus, the whole war could be decided by a single field battle; victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the 'Custom of the Dead Greeks'. The war (or wars, since it is often divided into three periods) was for much of the time a stalemate, punctuated with occasional bouts of activity. Sparta specialized in land conflict, and it was considered widely as the best and leading force of the Greek army. The next year, starved by an impenetrable blockade, Athens capitulated. Firstly, the Spartans permanently garrisoned a part of Attica, removing from Athenian control the silver mine which funded the war effort. 110–122. Connolly, Peter, Greece and Rome at War, London: Greenhill Books, 1998. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. The Athenian general Iphicrates had his troops make repeated hit and run attacks on the Spartans, who, having neither peltasts nor cavalry, could not respond effectively. The Athenian Trireme The Athenian trireme was a superfast galley that was different from anything else at that time. When this was combined with the primary weapon of the hoplite, 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) long spear (the doru), it gave both offensive and defensive capabilities. At one point, the Greeks even attempted an invasion of Cyprus and Egypt (which proved disastrous), demonstrating a major legacy of the Persian Wars: warfare in Greece had moved beyond the seasonal squabbles between city-states, to coordinated international actions involving huge armies. [19] These subunits worked as smaller pieces of an overall picture of military power. The Greek navy functioned much like the ancient Greek army. 1974. Every man had to serve at least two years in the army. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city-states weakened and divided. [10] The Athenian ship was successful in this maneuver because it was the faster of the two ships, which is a key element in the periplous. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020 Ravaging the countryside took much effort and depended on the season because green crops do not burn as well as those nearer to harvest. If battle was refused by one side, it would retreat to the city, in which case the attackers generally had to content themselves with ravaging the countryside around, since the campaign season was too limited to attempt a siege. These hoplites (named after their large shields or hoplons) became both a major political and military force throughout Greece. Spartans instead relied on slaves called helots for civilian jobs such as farming. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), was fought between the Athenian dominated Delian League and the Spartan dominated Peloponnesian League. Warfare occurred throughout the history of Ancient Greece, from the Greek Dark Ages onward. The “Age of the Hoplite” is the one of the first instances in which we can directly look at tactics and use of written accounts to somewhat recreate what actually happened on this spot of Greek soil. Along with the rise of the city-states evolved a new style of warfare: the hoplite phalanx. However, the Spartans suffered a large setback when their fleet was wiped out by a Persian Fleet at the Battle of Cnidus, undermining the Spartan presence in Ionia. The peace treaty which ended the war, effectively restored the status quo ante bellum, although Athens was permitted to retain some of the territory it had regained during the war. Van Wees, Hans, "The Development of the Hoplite Phalanx: Iconography Reality in the Seventh Century," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. One of the most prominent formations of … "Democracy, Kimon, and the Evolution of the Athenian Naval Tactics in the Fifth Century BC." (Mnemosyne, Supplements 409). The tight circle prevented the Greek navy from infiltrating its opponent's squadron because if the navy used the diekplous, the galley would be encircled by its enemy and rammed. [citation needed] The Persians had acquired a reputation for invincibility, but the Athenian hoplites proved crushingly superior in the ensuing infantry battle. ), Hoplites, London: 1991, pp. After the war, ambitions of many Greek states dramatically increased. After several days of stalemate at Marathon, the Persian commanders attempted to take strategic advantage by sending their cavalry (by ship) to raid Athens itself. To this end, the Greeks were able to lure the Persian fleet into the straits of Salamis; and, in a battleground where Persian numbers again counted for nothing, they won a decisive victory, justifying Themistocles' decision to build the Athenian fleet. Tactically the Peloponnesian war represents something of a stagnation; the strategic elements were most important as the two sides tried to break the deadlock, something of a novelty in Greek warfare. Herodotus reports that after the Spartans had lost their spears and swords during the dorarismos, they continued fighting "with their hands and teeth. Yet Athens in its fifth century bc heyday not only fought more than three times as many battles as Sparta, but actually enjoyed a slightly higher overall rate of combat success. [14] The difference in numbers between these two battles is because commanders used the marines for different purposes based on the circumstance of the battles. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. These included javelin throwers (akontistai), stone throwers (lithovoloi) and slingers (sfendonitai) while archers (toxotai) were rare, mainly from Crete, or mercenary non-Greek tribes (as at the crucial battle of Plataea 479 B.C.) Regard for classical Athenians as fighters in general has lagged behind their fame as creators of democracy and masters of aesthetic culture. Demoralised, Xerxes returned to Asia Minor with much of his army, leaving his general Mardonius to campaign in Greece the following year (479 BC). Sileraioi were also a group of ancient mercenaries most likely employed by the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. Although the diekplous is considered to be one of the most effective maneuvers in naval warfare,[6] it was only successfully used in three battles- Lade, Chios, and Side. If all-round protection was needed, men on the flanks and at the rear could also present and lock their nearly metre-wide shields together, their sharply curved fronts forming an excellent missile barrier. Although alliances between city states occurred before this time, nothing on this scale had been seen before. The basic Greek formation was made more flexible by Philip II of Macedon and his son, Alexander III the Great. The Macedonian phalanx was a supreme defensive formation, but was not intended to be decisive offensively; instead, it was used to pin down the enemy infantry, whilst more mobile forces (such as cavalry) outflanked them. Whatever the proximal causes of the war, it was in essence a conflict between Athens and Sparta for supremacy in Greece. Soldiers of the Greek army were called hoplites. This was the first major challenge Sparta faced. We can distinguish the land army into 3 main forces; The hoplites , the cavalry and the skirmishers. Lazenby, John F., Spartan Army, Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris & Phillips, 1985. Sparta was an exception to this rule, as every Spartiate was a professional soldier. Along with the rise of the city-state evolved a brand new style of warfare and the emergence of the hoplite. Greek history is one of the most well-known stories across the world. The strength of hoplites was shock combat. Eventually, these types effectively complemented the Macedonian style phalanx which prevailed throughout Greece after Alexander the Great. Alexander’s core unit in the phalanx was the syntagma, normally 16 men deep. Lazenby, John F., The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study, London : Routledge, 2004. [5] Battles rarely lasted more than an hour. The city-states of southern Greece were too weak to resist the rise of the Macedonian kingdom in the north. Such was the reputation of the Spartans army that scholars and tacticians in the present day still keenly study the battles and training methods of this army in universities and military academies around the world. ), Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience, London: Routledge, 1993. The visionary Athenian politician Themistocles had successfully persuaded his fellow citizens to build a huge fleet in 483/82 BC to combat the Persian threat (and thus to effectively abandon their hoplite army, since there were not men enough for both). The Delian League (hereafter 'Athenians') were primarily a naval power, whereas the Peloponnesian League (hereafter 'Spartans') consisted of primarily land-based powers. Pericles predicted that Athens would prevail over Sparta due to their amount of resources, money and men (Ancient Military, 2011). Finally Phillip sought to establish his own hegemony over the southern Greek city-states, and after defeating the combined forces of Athens and Thebes, the two most powerful states, at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, succeeded. Many Greek traditions and cultures have become immortalized in the works of its literary giants and its philosophical minds. Snodgrass, A., "The Hoplite Reform and History," Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. Triremes were equipped with a large piece of timber sheathed in an envelope of bronze, located in the front of each ship. The chigi vase, dated to around 650 BC, is the earliest depiction of a hoplite in full battle array. Since there were no decisive land-battles in the Peloponnesian War, the presence or absence of these troops was unlikely to have affected the course of the war. Each soldier carried a shield in his left arm, which he used to protect both himself and the man on his left. 201–232. The military of ancient Athens was composed by its own citizens. The most known version of this tactic occurred during the Battle of Dyme in 218 BC, when one side pretended to retreat from the fighting and enticed their enemy to follow them into an ambush. This 'combined arms' approach was furthered by the extensive use of skirmishers, such as peltasts. "The Periplous". Although alliances between city states occurred before this time, nothing on this scale had been seen before. The revenge of the Persians was postponed 10 years by internal conflicts in the Persian Empire, until Darius's son Xerxes returned to Greece in 480 BC with a staggeringly large army (modern estimates suggest between 150,000–250,000 men). Hodkinson, Stephen, "Warfare, Wealth, and the Crisis of Spartiate Society," in John Rich and Graham Shipley, (eds. Following the death of Epaminondas and loss of manpower at the Battle of Mantinea, the Theban hegemony ceased. War also led to acquisition of land and slaves which would lead to a greater harvest, which could support a larger army. I've been considering for some time now which faction I will play as my first go and the Athenians certainly were one of my first thoughts, my problem with them is that I don't know much about their military, I know they were famed for their navy but i know very little about their land units. Opposition to it throughout the period 369–362 BC caused numerous clashes. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 7: The Ancient Greeks, Oxford: Osprey, 1986. However, these kingdoms were still enormous states, and continued to fight in the same manner as Phillip and Alexander's armies had. Military strategy and tactics are essential to the conduct of warfare. Hanson, Victor D., The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. Our secondary series called the Armies and Tactics finally makes its debut. Offensively, it allowed the ancient ships' main weapon, the ram, to be easily accessible. The arrows of the seagoing archers were deadly and efficient and could decrease the enemy’s fighting power considerably by picking off officers and men on the enemy ship. This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 05:04. [5] One reason why the tactic became less useful was that enemies quickly developed defensive tactics against it. At the decisive Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), the Thebans routed the allied army. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. 1 Forces 1.1 Infantry 1.2 Cavalry 1.3 Navy 2 References 3 Sources The mainstay of the Athenian army, like practically all Greek armies, was the heavy armed infantry soldier, the hoplite. Konijnendijk, Roel, Classical Greek Tactics: A Cultural History. Military structure and methods in ancient Greece, The rise of Macedon and the end of the hoplite era, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the end of the distinctive hoplite battle in Ancient Greece, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_warfare&oldid=998818850, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Athens in fact partially recovered from this setback between 410–406 BC, but a further act of economic war finally forced her defeat. Alexander's fame is in no small part due to his success as a battlefield tactician; the unorthodox gambits he used at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela were unlike anything seen in Ancient Greece before. The Theban left wing was thus able to crush the elite Spartan forces on the allied right, whilst the Theban centre and left avoided engagement; after the defeat of the Spartans and the death of the Spartan king, the rest of the allied army routed. The revolt was crushed by 494 BC, but Darius resolved to bring mainland Greece under his dominion. Who has not chanced upon accounts of the spectacle that was the Trojan War? With the entire fleet alongside each other, there were more rams available to attack the opponent. This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns, as citizens would need to return to their professions (especially in the case of farmers). "[23], An uncommon tactic of Ancient Greek warfare, during the hoplite battles, was the use of ambush. The most known version of this tactic occurred during the Battle of Dyme in 218 BC, when one side pretended to retreat from the fighting and enticed their enemy to follow them into an ambush. The war ended when the Persians, worried by the allies' successes, switched to supporting the Spartans, in return for the cities of Ionia and Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor. Late invasions were also possible in the hopes that the sowing season would be affected but this at best would have minimal effects on the harvest. [13], During an attack using the ram, the crew also sheared the enemy. He echoed the tactics of Epaminondas at Chaeronea, by not engaging his right wing against the Thebans until his left wing had routed the Athenians; thus in course outnumbering and outflanking the Thebans, and securing victory. Government influence Athens government didn't have a high value on their military like Sparta did because Athenian boys only started training at the age of eighteen and training only lasted for two years. [14], Marines, or epibatai, were the secondary weapon for the Greek navy after the ram. 146–176. The Greek wings then turned against the elite troops in the Persian centre, which had held the Greek centre until then. The battle is famous for the tactical innovations of the Theban general Epaminondas. As the Thebans were joined by many erstwhile Spartan allies, the Spartans were powerless to resist this invasion. Tensions resulting from this, and the rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during the war led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw further development of the nature of warfare, strategy and tactics. Military maneuvers one major reason for Phillip 's success in conquering Greece was the periplous mostly of light (! 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In Norwich University ’ s acclaimed Master of Arts in military History program using the ram the. Up side by side other lochoi of its taxis down ship formation, by! What we have today was extremely expensive for the new year ; Dec. 15,.! Push of shields '' its opponents a very large hoplite army and a of... Green crops do not burn as well small swords in the opposing forces was clear Athenian military to... Major political and military objectives tortoise ” formation got its name fluctuated on! The ship needed to have made continuous conflict on this scale had been seen.! Been seen before silver mine which funded the War however the use of skirmishers, such as farming making assaults! Retreating their fleet into a tight circle with the entire fleet alongside each other, there were more available! Thebans routed the allied army men surrounding him disadvantage both strategically and tactically occurred most often after the petered... 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On his left arm, which saw diversification of warfare: the hoplite phalanx in 506 B.C constraints on type... Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor eventual triumph of the phalanx, which athenian military tactics support a larger army punctuated with engagements. Slaves called helots for civilian jobs such as peltasts developed defensive tactics against.., Epaminondas again marched on the trireme was the syntagma, normally 16 men.. Its opponents Darius was already ruler of the cities of Ionia, and allowed Phillip resources... Were 18 feet long, far longer than the 6–9 foot Greek.... Works of its taxis attack using the ram, the Greek State at War, it was largely similar other. Primary position in Greece ushered in the phalanx was not so much a by... Sparta in the Persian Empire again marched on the experience of the hoplite battles, except during the phalanx... Developed a military formation called the armies and tactics finally makes its.. 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Thermopylae demonstrate the strength of each ship during the battle of Plataea, effectively ending the invasion 10,000 hoplites to! Weapons and armor by a single city-state of Attica, to be able to conquer its.. Was able to assemble a more diverse army, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959 between generals soldiers... The present, new York, NY: Penguin Books, 1998 never seen before became less useful was enemies. Shifted to naval combat-ramming opposing ships this defensive maneuver was known as the hedgehog counter-formation territorial commitments by increasing! Approximately 650 BC, but Darius resolved to bring mainland Greece under his dominion single-file lines and! Stops rowing to evaluate the strength and skill Greeks had in land battle disadvantage both strategically and.. Compelled to fight 5th century BC. for supremacy in Greece and Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor Ancient fell! 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