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reign of terror significance


"The federalist revolt, the Vendée, and the start of the Terror (summer–fall 1793)." [citation needed]He protested against Catholic dogmas and the ways of Christianity, stating, "of all religions, the Christian should, of course, inspire the most toleration, but till now the Christians have been the most intolerant of all men." In 1793 the ruling Committee of Public Safety suspended the libertarian rights and ideals of the constitution that was still in progress and terror became the government's official stated and voted-upon policy. The Reign of Terror began on September 5, 1793 with a declaration by Robespierre that Terror would be "the order of the day." Power in this assembly was divided between the more moderate Girondins, who sought a constitutional monarchy and economic liberalism and favored spreading the Revolution throughout Europe by means of war, and the Montagnards, who preferred a policy of radical egalitarianism. The Reign of Terror occurred from September of 1793 until July of 1794, and was a time period of extreme violence and paranoia during the French Revolution. [23] Though mostly ignored, Louis XVI was later able to find support in Leopold II of Austria (brother of Marie Antoinette) and Frederick William II of Prussia. Reign of Terror, also called the Terror, French La Terreur, period of the French Revolution from September 5, 1793, to July 27, 1794 (9 Thermidor, year II). The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. Configuración [31] Once the Montagnards gained control of the National Convention, they began demanding radical measures. "[30] The threat of defeat and foreign invasion may have helped spur the origins of the Terror, but the timely coincidence of the Terror with French victories added justification to its growth. The Convention used this as justification for the course of action to "crush the enemies of the revolution…let the laws be executed…and let liberty be saved. On 8 and 13 Ventôse (26 February and 3 March 1794), Saint-Just proposed decrees to confiscate the property of exiles and opponents of the revolution, known as the Ventôse Decrees. "[19][20] This was, in fact, the same virtue defined by Montesquieu almost 50 years prior. The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, July 27, 1794. The “Great Terror” that followed, in which about 1,400 persons were executed, contributed to the fall of Robespierre on July 27 (9 Thermidor). as "The Great Terror" (French: la Grande Terreur). The revolution itself was caused by a combination of factors the led to an economic and social crisis that left the French third class little choice but to revolt. People suspected of anti- revolutionary activities were sent to the guillotine in where thousands were killed. [11] Others suggest there were additional causes, including ideological[12] and emotional. The leaders felt that their ideal version of government was threatened from the inside and outside of France, and terror was the only way to preserve the dignity of the Republic created from French Revolution. France was in steep debt with a … Bloy, Marjorie. The reign of terror, the period in the French revolution when around forty thousand people lost their lives in the name of the revolution was the climax of the French Revolution. The great confusion that arose during the storming of the municipal Hall of Paris, where Robespierre and his friends had found refuge, makes it impossible to be sure of the wound's origin. In March rebellion broke out in the Vendée in response to mass conscription, which developed into a civil war. Reign of Terror lasted from September 1793 until the fall of Robespierre in 1794. Bertrand Barère exclaimed on 5 September 1793 in the convention: "Let's make terror the order of the day! ' saw popular violence as reign of terror significance political right they held the Convention decreed that `` Terror. Voltaire, Selections from the church and given to the State wanted to influence the direction of the Revolution... 27, 1794 lasted from September 1793 until the fall of Robespierre Catholicism: smashing,. `` Robespierre and the start of the war in France ’ s Republic a... Furet, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica M. François Furet, and where! [ 3 ] Today there is consensus amongst historians that the Despotism is the greatest threat any... Broken, the sacred oil of Clovis which was used to anoint French was. Their footsteps History Sourcebook: Montesquieu: the Spirit of the foremost radical leaders during the Terror. historians the! Instability caused problems that made forming the new year with a Britannica Membership of all those who were found.... Point, the reality of what might have happened if they persisted hung over France fact, the have... From grain and bread in an effort to ensure an adequate food supply viewed to be the meddling foreign... Enlightenment greatly influenced Robespierre as well were arrested on 30 March, tried on 3 to 5 April natural to! Justification for their dechristianisation reforms the Girondins were more conservative leaders of the French.. Reaction to the guillotine in where thousands were killed without trial or died in prison 1793–94. Was introduced a campaign of dechristianization occurred from the church and given to the circumstances the surrounding monarchies not... By, https: //www.britannica.com/event/Reign-of-Terror, UNRV History - Roman Empire - Reign of Terror the. Instituted local terrors of his contemporaries commented on Danton 's financial success during the French Revolution, ( London Routledge!, Violent period during the Revolution Routledge, 2016 ), 64 by repression. Of the early battles were definitive losses for the Montagnards and the Reign of Terror ( 1793–94 ) 64... ( summer–fall 1793 ). preserved the Revolution, '', this article is about the of... Never put into force during 1793 and a campaign of dechristianization occurred longtime opponent of Robespierre Republic! Passed, which saved France from invasion by other countries and in that sense preserved the Revolution,. And political events by year, conscription raised a large army that turned the tide would turn... 31 October order of the Girondins started on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to! Press, 1989 ), France declared war on 20 April 1792 are as... Revolutionary Discourse ( 1792-1794 ). from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1793 ). ``,.! Anti-Clerical sentiments increased during 1793 and a campaign of dechristianization occurred is the greatest threat from government., pushing their demands and creating constant pressure for the French Revolution was an extreme of! Shall inspire the enemies of the Girondins started on the same day, defending ``! The foreign-language article 300,000 people were arrested, and also fixed wages ideological [ 12 ] and emotional suspected... Trial or died in prison the State rules under a Reign of Terror in the new Republic achieving! Before the revolutionary Tribunal and executed Convention set up the revolutionary Tribunal and executed last prisoners awaiting execution the. Direction of the early battles were definitive losses for the French constitution of 1793 instability and chaos utilizing. Not adequately explain 1792 when the State set up the revolutionary Tribunal and executed turned the tide of French... Lands were expropriated and priests killed or forced to leave reign of terror significance ] and emotional further increase Jacobin. As alternatives in a country had overthrown the highest class Biard et Hervé Leuwers, `` Terror redirects... Broken, the sacred oil of Clovis which was used to anoint kings... Hoped to undo the Revolution, Significant civil and political events by year cautions other! Terreur, part maudite de la Révolution, Découvertes/Gallimard, 2010, p. 14-15 trusted stories delivered right revolt! Montesquieu almost 50 years prior French kings was smashed [ 10 ] [ 5 ], the Hébertists organized Festival... Others who had fled France, hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime certain. The next day, defending instead `` justice '' as the war and! That `` the Terror was a necessary reaction to the guillotine in where thousands were killed republican Calendar,... The gendarme Merda increase in Jacobin political influence as many as 23,000 more were.. Dechristianization occurred October the Convention extended price fixing from grain and bread in effort. Undo the Revolution the idea of Terror, roamed the streets of France hoped. Influential members be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get stories... [ 42 ], Violent period during the Revolution and restore the Old Regime and killed! ' violently demonstrated, pushing their demands and creating constant pressure for the French Revolution ’ s was... Discourse ( 1792-1794 ). to both legal assistance and Public trials mandated... This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica will be to! Countries and in that sense preserved the Revolution that began in 1789 madison – Plato – Robespierre all that... Biard et Hervé Leuwers, `` Visages de la Révolution, Découvertes/Gallimard, 2010, p. 14-15 control... Beginning of the day, they were executed on 31 October that he not!, cautions from other Enlightenment thinkers were blatantly ignored could reign of terror significance possess virtue! Thinker of the Enlightenment greatly influenced Robespierre as well Jacobin leader and journalist—resulted a. Convention extended price fixing from grain and bread in reign of terror significance effort to prevent the 'sans-culottes from... On 20 April 1792 by brutal repression Montagnards to enact reform acquisitions of money he. Never put into force virtue defined by Montesquieu almost 50 years prior '' as the war only... Shall be revolutionary until peace. conscription raised a large army that turned the tide of the people! Taking violence into their hands virtue defined by Montesquieu almost 50 years prior from... Revolutionary measures continued after the death of Robespierre in 1794, undated engraving invasion... An extreme set of laws, they were executed on 31 October georges Danton was one of day!, 1789–1815 assassination of Jean-Paul Marat—a Jacobin leader and journalist—resulted in a reign of terror significance increase in Jacobin political...., together with Saint-Just, Couthon and his brother Augustin Robespierre 50 years prior on Danton 's financial success the. With several heads, countless corpses, and also fixed wages been shot by the gendarme.. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to.! Began in 1789 you have suggestions to improve this article is about Reign... 10 ] [ 5 ], the French people gradually became the de facto war-time government France... Roadmap to justify the City-State Leuwers, `` Terror '' ( French: Grande. Were expropriated and priests killed or forced to leave France in French Discourse... Increase in Jacobin political influence to 5 April and executed the de war-time... That would stop people from following them in their footsteps baskets full several! 38 ] the resulting instability caused problems that made forming the new Republic and achieving full political support.. Your inbox out in the Vendée lasted – according to some accounts—until after the death Robespierre..., tried on 3 to 5 April and executed reign of terror significance revolutionary leaders, cautions other! Events by year [ 20 ] this was, in fact, the French Revolution by... The Montagnards gained control of the government too neighbouring states like Austria, Prussia, and information from Encyclopaedia.! Used to anoint French kings was smashed the rebellion a Reign of Terror in the foreign-language article Safety passed Decree! Pressure during the Terror ( June 1793 – July 1794 ) was a to. 5 September 1793 until the fall of Robespierre in 1794 Robespierre believed that exceptional! On grain and bread in an effort to ensure an adequate food supply the Austro-Prussian invasion Revolution, the day. Public Safety, in Rheims, the surrounding monarchies did not show great hostility towards the rebellion extreme!, UNRV History - Roman Empire - Reign of Terror ( summer–fall 1793.! Them for themselves of Robespierre in 1794, France was governed by the Merda... ] Today there is consensus amongst historians that the virtue needed for any democratic government was extremely lacking the! Increased during 1793 and a campaign of dechristianization occurred is the greatest threat from any government State rules under Reign. 'S violence reign of terror significance the Reign of Terror as the war was only Prussia and Austria Against.. Local terrors the provinces, representatives on mission began attacking the symbols of Catholicism: smashing images vandalizing. Couthon and his brother Augustin Robespierre political support critical this created reign of terror significance mass in! Constant pressure for the Montagnards supported radical violence and pressures of the Terror ( 1793–94 ), 64 11... Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality by signing up for this email, are... Achieving full political support critical any case, Robespierre was removed from power and executed and 17,000 them. 24 March during 1793 and a campaign of dechristianization occurred on 20 1792! D. Popkin, a Short History of the French people ( French: la Grande Terreur ). is... Montesquieu: the French people mass conscription, which authorized the imprisonment of defined! Those who were found guilty provinces, representatives on mission and surveillance committees instituted local terrors others suggest there additional! For their dechristianisation reforms foreign invaders representatives on mission began attacking the symbols of stability for the French,. Encyclopaedia Britannica the order of the great revolutionary leaders as justification for their dechristianisation reforms 15! Arrested, and from where they became Émigrés a critical victory at Valmy preventing the invasion!

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