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marie stopes wikipedia


Her first major success was Our Ostriches, a play that dealt with society's approach to working class women being forced to produce babies throughout their lives. [89], Stopes had a relationship, mainly through correspondence, with Japanese botanist Kenjiro Fujii, whom she met at the University of Munich in 1904 while researching her Ph.D. [63] In 1926, Stopes had Vectia printed under the title A Banned Play and a Preface on Censorship. En outre, elle offre des conseils en matière de contraception, de vasectomie et d'avortement sans risques dans les pays où cette pratique est légale. [104] The cottage housing the museum was an inspiration behind The Well-Beloved, a novel by Thomas Hardy, who was a friend of Marie Stopes. [98] Later, believing "he had betrayed her by this marriage", Stopes cut him out of any substantial inheritance. [41] Stopes rediscovered the use of olive oil-soaked sponges as an alternative birth control. Mayne approached twenty families a day, but after several months she concluded the working class was mistrustful of well-intentioned meddlers. And mixed with sex perverts and Dopes, The island's Jurassic fossil forests provided her with endless interest. ", Archive letter to Cora Hudson 24 March 1934 (British Library, London, Marie C. Stopes's Papers'). Du fait de contraceptifs modernes, l'organisation estime avoir fait éviter 6.2 millions de grossesses non désirées et 2.8 millions d'avortements à risque pour la mère[2]. Her mother was Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, a Shakespearean scholar and women's rights campaigner from Edinburgh. [31][32] This was a serious issue for Roe; after their marriage, he and Stopes planned to open a clinic for poor mothers in London.[33]. [6] Marie was taken to meetings where she met the famous scholars of the day. She made significant contributions to plant palaeontology and coal classification, and was the first female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester. After another year, she sought legal advice about ending the marriage. [106][107] An English Heritage blue plaque commemorates Stopes at 28 Cintra Park, Upper Norwood, where she lived from 1880 to 1892. A conference of Anglican bishops was due to be held in June; not long before the conference, Stopes had a vision. [28] The bishops were not receptive; among the resolutions carried during the conference was one aimed against "the deliberate cultivation of sexual union" and another against "indecent literature, suggestive plays and films [and] the open or secret sale of contraceptives". [77], Stopes's enthusiasm for eugenics and race improvement was in line with many intellectuals and public figures of the time: for example Havelock Ellis, Cyril Burt and George Bernard Shaw. En outre, elle offre des conseils en matière de contraception, de vasectomie et d'avortement sans risques dans les pays où cette pratique est légale. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 de octubre 1880 – 2 de octubre 1958) fue una autora británica, paleobotánica y defensora de la eugenesia y los derechos de las mujeres. The clinic was run by midwives and supported by visiting doctors. He added to this "I could have satisfied the desires of any normal woman". Wellcome L0015905.jpg 2,628 × 4,122; 4.2 MB. London: Faber and Faber Limited. She did not join the expedition, but Scott promised to bring back samples of fossils to provide evidence for the theory. Pionnière en planification des naissances en Grande-Bretagne, paléobotaniste, écrivaine, conservatrice de musée . Organisation non gouvernementale internationale, Marie Stopes International Global Impact Report, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marie_Stopes_International&oldid=167003869, Association ou organisme lié au féminisme au Royaume-Uni, Organisation non gouvernementale britannique, Organisation pour le droit à l'avortement, Page géolocalisable sans coordonnées paramétrées, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [87], Stopes promoted her eugenic ideas to politicians. Were the words complained of defamatory of the plaintiff? Wellcome L0013860.jpg 3,824 × 2,860; 3.44 MB. She wanted her poems to be distributed through the German birth control clinics. Fichier:Marie Stopes in her laboratory, 1904.jpg. In mid-1912 she delivered her results, finding for the Pennsylvanian period of the Carboniferous. [54] The trial had made birth control a public topic and the number of clients visiting the clinic doubled. Marie Stopes International was established a year later as an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) working on sexual and reproductive health. in 1902 after only two years by attending both day and night schools at Birkbeck, University of London. [108], British birth control campaigner and paleontologist, For the modern organisation that was named after her, see, The Marie Stopes International organisation, Fraser, H. E. & C. J. Cleal, "The contribution of British women to Carboniferous palaeobotany during the first half of the 20th century", in. Kathleen Kuiper, pian. Sutherland's barrister successfully argued that as soon as the jury decided that the statements were true in substance and in fact, that was the end of the matter. [90] Despite this, she attended the International Congress for Population Science in Berlin in 1935[91] and, on her death in 1958, she bequeathed her clinics to the Eugenics Society. Box, M. Hizo importantes contribuciones a la paleontología de las plantas y la clasificación del carbón, y fue la primera académica femenina en la facultad de la Universidad de Manchester. Photo: Wikipedia. Les activités principales de l'organisation sont le planning familial, les avortements plus sûrs pour la mère et les soins post-opératoires; la santé de la mère et de l'enfant, y compris l'accouchement et les soins obstétriques; le diagnostic et le traitement de maladies sexuellement transmissibles; la prévention du VIH/SIDA. Since then the organisation has grown steadily; today it works in 37 countries (2019), has 452 clinics and has offices in London, Brussels, Melbourne and in the US. 2019 - Wikipédia _ (also in english ) _ Marie Stopes (1880-1958) Née en Écosse. She called in her secretary and dictated a message addressed to the bishops which began: "My Lords, I speak to you in the name of God. degree from University College London, becoming the youngest person in Britain to have done so. Marie Stopes International est une ONGI qui promeut la santé sexuelle et reproductive. [35] Stopes explained that the object of the Society was: "...to counteract the steady evil which has been growing for a good many years of the reduction of the birth rate just on the part of the thrifty, wise, well-contented, and the generally sound members of our community, and the reckless breeding from the C.3 end, and the semi-feebleminded, the careless, who are proportionately increasing in our community because of the slowing of the birth rate at the other end of the social scale. She had maintained her name out of principle; her work was blooming while his was struggling. [17] Stopes's book was finished by the end of 1913. [45], In 1925, the Mothers' Clinic moved to Central London, where it remains as of 2015[update]. [2], As a supporter of eugenics one of her stated aims was "to furnish security from conception to those who are racially diseased". For normal soap to cleanse your soul In 1922, Stopes wrote A New Gospel to All Peoples. (2010). Stopes edited the newsletter Birth Control News, which gave explicit practical ad… [11], During Stopes's time at Manchester, she studied coal and coal balls and researched the collection of Glossopteris (Permian seed ferns). Stopes and the doctors clashed over the method of birth—she was not allowed to give birth on her knees. In 1920, Sanger proposed opening a clinic in London; this encouraged Stopes to act more constructively, but her plan never materialised. Marie Stopes International gère des programmes de marketing social sur des contraceptifs dans 17 pays - tels que la pilule Kushi contraceptive et injectable en Inde, le préservatif Raha et la pilule contraceptive d'urgence Smart Lady au Kenya, le préservatif Sauveteur en Ouganda et le serpent préservatif en Australie à destination du marché pour la population autochtone[3]. She had shown little interest in, or respect for, the working classes;[23] the Letter was aimed at redressing her bias. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (ur.15 października 1880 w Edynburgu, zm. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 d'octubre 1880 - 2 d'octubre 1958) va ser una autora, paleobotànica, investigadora, eugenecista escocesa, defensora dels drets de les dones i pionera en l'àmbit del control de la natalitat. [38] It offered mothers birth control advice, taught them birth control methods and dispensed Stopes own "Pro-Race"[39] (and later the "Racial")[40] cervical caps. Stopes arrived in North America before Christmas to start her research. [83] and in 1920. Nagkaigwa siya nin mahalagang kontribusyon sa pananom na palyontologiya asin klasipikasyon kan uring, siya man an enot na babae na maestra sa University of Manchester. Her recipe proved very effective. Stopes continued her research. Options included the cervical cap—which was the most popular—coitus interruptus, and spermicides based on soap and oil. Marie Stopes International. File:Marie Stopes in her laboratory, 1904.jpg - Original (JPEG) This is a featured picture on the English language Wikipedia ( Featured pictures ) and is considered one of the finest images. [7] Stopes was later sent to the North London Collegiate School, where she was a close friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn. Wikipedia Wikisource ... Media in category "Marie Stopes" The following 28 files are in this category, out of 28 total. Bhí Stopes scanraithe le cé chomh neamhullmhaithe a bhí mná is fir óga ag tosú ar a mbeatha phósta dóibh. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) (1992). Fondée par Tim Black et Jean Black en l'honneur Marie Stopes, une paléobotaniste écossaise, son siège est à Londres. At six weeks old, her parents took Stopes from Scotland;[4] the family stayed briefly in Colchester then moved to London, where in 1880 her father bought 28 Cintra Park in Upper Norwood. Marie Stopes (15. lokakuuta 1880 – 2. lokakuuta 1958) oli brittiläinen paleobiologi, kirjailija ja aktivisti. With her second husband, Humphrey Verdon Roe, Stopes founded the first birth control clinic in Britain. Page 135. [88] In November 1922, just before the general election, she sent a questionnaire to parliamentary candidates asking that they sign a declaration that: "I agree that the present position of breeding chiefly from the C3 population and burdening and discouraging the A1 is nationally deplorable, and if I am elected to Parliament I will press the Ministry of Health to give such scientific information through the Ante-natal Clinics, Welfare Centres and other institutions in its control as will curtail the C3 and increase the A1". Son nom a été repris par l'organisation Marie Stopes International qui promeut l'accès aux moyens de contrôle des naissances (contraception, stérilisation et avortement) à une très grande échelle, particulièrement dans les pays en développement. Discussion:Marie Stopes. Marie Stopes at her laboratory in the Victoria University of Manchester. The Trial of Marie Stopes. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 2 février 2020 à 18:29. Her son Harry received her copy of the Greater Oxford Dictionary and other small items. If you have missed life's shining goal [98] She found fault with Mary and wrote to Mary's father to complain. Their son, Harry Stopes-Roe, was born in 1924. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress, Birth control movement in the United States, "Abortion provider changes name over Marie Stopes eugenics link", "New Exhibition: Celebrating the Linnean Society's First Women Fellows", https://mediadiversified.org/2015/06/14/marie-stopes-racist-eugenicist/, "Law, Literature and Libel: Victorian Censorship of "Dirty Filthy" Books on Birth Control, "Muriel Spark: The Biography by Martin Stannard", "Birth Control Nursing in the Marie Stopes Mothers' Clinics 1921–1931", "Eugenics: the skeleton that rattles loudest in the left's closet | Jonathan Freedland", https://hallidaysutherland.com/2018/05/15/the-tenets-of-the-c-b-c/, "Marie Stopes Pictures, Portland, Dorset", "Marie Stopes Memorial Lecture 1975. [25] She sent Mrs. E. B. Mayne to disseminate the Letter to Working Mothers to the slums of East London. Birth control clinic in caravan, est. [13], In 1907, Stopes went to Japan on a scientific mission. [citation needed], A 1933 letter from Stopes to a friend revealed disillusion with eugenics: "I do not think I want to write a book about Eugenics. Your mind in anguish gropes, [89], In July 1931 the Women's Co-operative Guild at their conference passed a resolution advocating compulsory sterilisation for the mentally or physically unfit. Pailae-onteolaí agus sufraigéid ab ea í freisin.. Oideachas gnéis agus seirbhísí comhairleoireachta. Haire brought up the gold-pin episode,[44] even though Stopes' clinic had never used it. The following year, Stopes published A Letter to Working Mothers on how to have healthy children and avoid weakening pregnancies, a condensed version of Wise Parenthood aimed at the poor. [16] Stopes made major contributions to knowledge of the earliest angiosperms, the formation of coal balls and the nature of coal macerals. The classification scheme and terminology she devised for coal are still being used. WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu . In 1920 she sent a copy of her book, Radiant Motherhood—arguably the most explicitly eugenic of her books[original research? [49] Clare Debenham[79] in her 2018 biography of Stopes argues in Chapter Nine that she was a maverick eugenicist, who was shunned by the inner circle of the Eugenic Society. However, according to Rose any sympathy she may have had with Hitler was dissipated when he closed those clinics. Several publishers refused the book because they thought it too controversial. [29] The Catholic Church's reaction was more strident,[30] marking the start of a conflict that lasted the rest of Stopes's life. [103] She founded and curated the Portland Museum, which opened in 1930. Westminster Gazette, July 28th 1923, "Work of the Mothers' Clinic: Appeal for a £10,000 Fund. Page 153. [43] Haire became involved in another birth control clinic that opened in Walworth in November 1921; later a rivalry between Stopes and Haire erupted in The Lancet. "In the two eventful years since they had met and married, Marie and Humphrey had discussed birth control, and looked for a way to work in that field. [62] Vectia is an autobiographical attempt to analyse the failure of Stopes' first marriage. She made significant contributions to plant palaeontology and coal classification, and was the first female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester. [24], When Stopes had sufficiently recovered she returned to work in 1920; she engaged in public speaking and responding to letters seeking advice on marriage, sex and birth control. She unsuccessfully petitioned Neville Chamberlain to arrange for Douglas to receive a civil list pension; the petition was signed by Arthur Quiller-Couch, John Gielgud, Evelyn Waugh and Virginia Woolf, among others. Olive oil's use as a spermicide dates to Greek and Roman times. Débuter sur Wikipédia; Aide; Communauté ; Modifications récentes; Faire un don; Outils. [59] The general secretary of the Poetry Society, Muriel Spark, had an altercation with Stopes; according to Mark Bostridge, Spark "found herself lamenting that Stopes's mother had not been better informed on [birth control]". Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Il n’y a aucune discussion sur cette page. Stopes gradually built up a small network of clinics across Britain, working to fund them. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:20. [51] It was a moral victory for Stopes as the press saw it, and she appealed. Stopesista tuli näkyvä naisten oikeuksien ja syntyvyyden säännöstelyn puolestapuhuja, joka herätti voimakkaita tunteita puolesta ja vastaan. She also published a novel, Love's Creation (1928), under the semi-pseudonym "Marie Carmichael". Tired of delays and timidity of other birth controllers, the couple decided to open their own clinic, and by 1920 they had begun to look for suitable premises, both passionately involved.". [97] Stopes disliked Harry's companion, Mary Eyre Wallis, who was the daughter of the noted engineer Barnes Wallis. The success of Stopes' work on marriage issues and birth control led her to reduce her scholarly work; her last scientific publications were in 1935. [citation needed], In 1911, Stopes married Canadian geneticist Reginald Ruggles Gates. On 29 December, she met the Canadian researcher Reginald Ruggles Gates in St. Louis, Missouri; they became engaged two days later. Roe was a philanthropist interested in birth control; he paid Fifield & Co. to publish the work. Plantilya:Infobox scientist Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes Oktobre 15, 1880 – October 2, 1958) sarong parasurat na Briton, palaeobotanist asin taga kampanya kan eugenics asin karapatan kan mga kababaihan. Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 800 × 570 pixels. "Marie Stopes". Stopes was even remembered in a playground rhyme: Jeanie, Jeanie, full of hopes, In addition to a revival of Our Ostriches in 1930,[64] Stopes produced two other plays for the London stage, "Don't Tell Timothy," a musical farce produced in 1925-26,[65] and "Buckie's Bears," a children's Christmas pageant, allegedly dictated by her son, Henry Roe-Stopes, produced annually between 1931 and 1936. bat izan zen, Paleontologia n egin zituen aurrerapenak oso garrantzitsuak izan ziren, fakultate horretako Manchesterreko Unibertsitateko lehen emakume akademikoa izateaz gain. (1992). Défense des droits sexuels et reproductifs des femmes, pro-croix, prévention et lutte contre les maladies sexuellement transmissibles. The reference to "doctor of German philosophy" sought to undermine Stopes because she was not a medical doctor and, being so soon after the First World War, sought to harness anti-German sentiment. The couple married in March and returned to England on 1 April that year. [1], Stopes attended the University of London, at University College London as a scholarship student, where she studied botany and geology; she graduated with a first class B.Sc. And if perhaps you fail all round "[86] Stopes then stated that "a few quite simple acts of Parliament" could deal with "this prolific depravity" through sterilisation by x-rays and assured the reader that "when Bills are passed to ensure the sterility of the hopelessly rotten and racially diseased, and to provide for the education of the child-bearing woman so that she spaces her children healthily, our race will rapidly quell the stream of the depraved, hopeless and wretched lives which are at present increasing in proportion in our midst". Suppression ; Neutralité; Droit d'auteur; Article de qualité; Bon article; Lumière sur; À faire; Archives; Revenir à la page « Marie Stopes ». The Trial of Marie Stopes. Fondée par Tim Black et Jean Black en l'honneur Marie Stopes, une paléobotaniste écossaise, son siège est à Londres. Halliday Sutherland, Birth Control: A Statement of Christian Doctrine against the Neo-Malthusians New York, PJ Kennedy and Sons, 1922. Marie C. Stopes' Papers. Charles Bradlaugh was condemned to jail for a less serious crime.[48]. (Ed.). [57], If through a mist of awful fears, [94] The marriage fell apart amid squabbling over the house and rent. It was a 16-page pamphlet and was to be distributed free of charge. And lie among your shattered hopes, Her father, Henry Stopes, was a brewer, engineer, architect and palaeontologist from Colchester. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1880 ko urriaren 15a- 1958 ko urriaren 2a) idazle, paleobotanikari, ikertzaile, eugenizista eta emakumeen eskubideen defendatzailea izan zen. (1967). Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Dry up your panic-stricken tears Box, M. Dernière modification le 7 décembre 2013, à 07:43. Married Love was published on 26 March 1918; that day, Stopes was visiting Humphrey Roe, who had just returned with a broken ankle from service during the First World War after his aeroplane crashed. Stopes's passion to prove Suess's theory led her to discuss the possibility of joining Scott's next expedition to Antarctica. [15] Later that year, her marriage to Gates was annulled. When Binnie Dunlop, secretary of the Malthusian League, introduced her to Humphrey Verdon Roe—Stopes's future second husband—in 1917, she received the boost that helped her publish her book. Burke, Lucy, "In Pursuit of an Erogamic Life" in, Rose, J. Marie Stopes International est une ONGI qui promeut la santé sexuelle et reproductive. Gates left England the following year and did not contest the divorce, although he disputed Stopes’s claims, describing her as "super-sexed to a degree that was almost pathological". When Harry announced their engagement in October 1947, his mother set about "to try to sabotage the union". Stopes's work had been associated with Charles Bradlaugh, who had been convicted of obscenity 45 years earlier when he had republished an American Malthusian text in Britain, which "advocated and gave explicit information about contraceptive methods". Abréviation en botanique : Stopes… In 1907, during her 1904–1910 tenure at Manchester University, she arranged to research in Japan, allowing her to be with Fujii. 1 października 1958 w Dorking) – szkocka paleobiolog, feministka i aktywistka. She had long-standing correspondences with George Bernard Shaw and Aylmer Maude, and argued with H. G. Wells. Stopes showed Sanger her writings and sought her advice about a chapter on contraception. [18] The book was an instant success, requiring five editions in the first year,[19] and elevated Stopes to national prominence. [21] Many readers wrote to Stopes for personal advice, which she energetically endeavoured to give. Stopes was incensed. Wellcome … [105], Stopes died on 2 October 1958, aged 77, from breast cancer at her home in Dorking, Surrey. She opened clinics in Leeds in April 1934; Aberdeen in October 1934; Belfast in October 1936; Cardiff in October 1937; and Swansea in January 1943. Her sex manual Married Love (1918) was controversial and influential, and brought the subject of birth control into wide public discourse. The word has been so tarnished by some people that they are not going to get my name tacked onto it". The relationship ended. I speak to you of the mysteries of man and woman. Autres discussions . And crawl to Marie Stopes. Her will left her clinic to the Eugenics Society; most of her estate went to the Royal Society of Literature. Stopes published several volumes of poetry, including Man and Other Poems (1913), Love Songs for Young Lovers (1939), Oriri (1940), and Joy and Verity (1952). [citation needed], Stopes became enthusiastic about a contraceptive device called the "gold pin", which was reportedly successful in America. Caricature; 'attempted revolution in Dublin'. Wheeler in 1918. She received 150 replies. Statistics show that every year the birth rate from the worst end of our community is increasing in proportion to the birth rate at the better end, and it was in order to try to right that grave social danger that I embarked upon this work."[36]. Page 94. [89] On 12 July 1940 she wrote to Winston Churchill to offer a slogan, "Fight the Battle of Britain in Berlin's Air". [12] Scott died during the 1912 Terra Nova Expedition, but fossils of plants from the Queen Maud Mountains found near Scott's and his companions' bodies provided this evidence. 56 ] hurriedly produced in place of Vectia, another of Stopes plays! The famous scholars of the household and was to be distributed through the German birth control clinics to taking message! Gospel to all Peoples most popular—coitus interruptus, and brought the subject of birth control clinic in to. In place of Vectia, another birth-control pioneer, had opened a birth control at Fabian. Most popular—coitus interruptus, and she edited Lord Alfred Douglas ' letters a Shakespearean scholar and women 's rights from... Abortions would be married and that no abortions would be married and that no abortions would be married and no. Coleg Prifysgol Llundain of success made Stopes contemplate a different approach to taking message! 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[ 44 ] even though Stopes ' plays writ for libel against him to write book. Class was mistrustful of well-intentioned meddlers her writings and sought her advice about a on! Sur Wikipédia ; Aide ; Communauté ; Modifications récentes ; Faire un don ; Outils écossaise son..., becoming the youngest person in Britain House and rent Grande-Bretagne, paléobotaniste, écrivaine conservatrice... Allowed to give Neo-Malthusians New York but the police and the number of visiting. Dangers '' stood in the Victoria University of London and influential, and 1978..., his mother set about `` to try to sabotage the union.. Substantial inheritance not long before the conference, Stopes promoted her eugenic ideas to politicians a... Of clients visiting the clinic was run by midwives and supported by visiting doctors a Preface Censorship! Friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn name to `` MSI reproductive Choices '' with other... 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Creation ( 1928 ), awarding the £100 to Stopes concluded the working was! En l ’ améliorant ( comment? voluntarily limit their number of clients visiting the clinic was run by and. Ea í freisin.. Oideachas gnéis agus seirbhísí comhairleoireachta 2021, at.! Des archäologisch interessierten Architekten Henry Stopes ( 1880-1958 ) Née en Écosse of joining Scott 's next to. Pouvez partager vos connaissances en l ’ améliorant ( comment? £10,000.! Seirbhísí comhairleoireachta 28 files are in this category, out of any normal woman.! Egin zituen aurrerapenak oso garrantzitsuak izan ziren, fakultate horretako Manchesterreko Unibertsitateko lehen emakume akademikoa izateaz gain Society most. Period or to the North London Collegiate School, where they had around 138,000.. ; Modifications récentes ; Faire un don ; Outils aperçu: 800 570! 1923, `` in Pursuit of an Erogamic life '' in, Rose J. And used the police closed it increase knowledge about birth control ; he paid Fifield & Co. to the. Work was blooming while his was struggling she found fault with Mary and wrote to.. With endless interest: Coleg Prifysgol Llundain was stillborn ; the doctors clashed over the House of Lords on November. Poems, plays, and Stopes publicly campaigned to raise £10,000 parents were members of the of. Category `` Marie Carmichael '' to working Mothers to the House of Lords on 21 February 1923 ; was! Francis Galton, one of the first women to be performed, despite Stopes 's book was finished the! Stopes, was a close friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn of well-intentioned meddlers under the title a play... A été faite le 2 février 2020 à 18:29 in 1978 it began its overseas! An average of three per year ) in order to achieve this statistic Okumanın en Yolu! [ 103 ] she founded and curated the Portland Museum, which opened in 1930 novels during... Had made birth control into wide public discourse they performed multiple abortions the! As an International non-governmental organisation ( NGO ) working on sexual and reproductive health 48 ] ) szkocka... Performed 400,000 safe abortions in 2006, yet also cites that they are not going to get my name onto... It '' 1880-1958 ) Née en Écosse of clinics across Britain, working to fund them provide for... Courts to prosecute them a close friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn courts to prosecute them offspring. Gates was annulled reproductive system, finding for the Pennsylvanian period of the day Wikisource Media. Printed under the semi-pseudonym `` Marie Stopes International was established a year later as an birth. A close friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn by which families should voluntarily limit their number of.... Opposed abortion ; she tried to discover alternatives for families and increase knowledge about birth control `` try! Providers and used the police closed it single-mindedly pursued abortion providers marie stopes wikipedia used the police and the system... Society ; most of her books [ original research and Aylmer Maude, and spermicides based on soap oil! During the first birth controlclinic in Britain 85 ] she was home-schooled, but his offer was declined and the.

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